Media Attributions

This section lists the attributions for materials used in this ebook.  If a citation and/or attribution to an image is not listed here, then it was specifically created for this ebook by Dr. J. Gordon Leishman, and the image can be assumed to be under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives license. Public domain materials have been included in these attributions whenever possible.

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure that the attributions are comprehensive, accurate, and up-to-date. The Copyright Disclaimer under Section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976 states that allowance is made for purposes such as teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute.

For any corrections or updates, please contact the author directly.

Module I: Introductory

What is Aerospace Engineering?

  1. 787_production_line © Jetstar Airways is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  2. SLS Launch Vehicle in the 11.11_FT WT © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. 2560px-DLR_2007_A380_sim_hires Photo: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Germany (CC BY 3.0) licence.
  4. 1280px-Pratt__Whitney_Advanced_Ducted_Propulsor_engine_test-1024×799 © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license
  5. Structures_icon_Replacement © ERAU/Dr. Alberto Mello is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  6. Aircraft_FBW © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license, and based on FWB.png by MCVAGrupo11.
  7. surface © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  8. 111206413_henriwerijflyingvflyingabovesea © Henri Werij is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  9. 2048px-Fan_blades_and_inlet_guide_vanes_of_GEnx-2B.jpg © Olivier Cleynen, is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  10. supersonic © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  11. 1280px-Raptor-test-9-25-2016 © Elon Musk / SpaceX is licensed under a CC BY-NC (Attribution NonCommercial) license.
  12. 110930-N-JQ696-401 © US Navy / Kelly Schindler is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  13. Noise_CFDnoisepropagation.png © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license. Adapted by J. Gordon Leishman.
  14. PyramidOfSuccessImage.png © Professor James D. Jones at Purdue University.

History of Aircraft & Aviation

  1. daVinciwings2 © Leonardo Da Vinci is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  2. Montgolfier © Claude Louis Desrais is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. GiffardAirship © Mike Young is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  4. Edward_Frost-ornithopter. Licensed under a Public Domain license.
  5. cayley_planeadores © George Cayley is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  6. Propellers_veryearly  © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  7. CFDproblem © Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  8. J5 © Smithsonian is licensed under a CC0 (Creative Commons Zero) license.
  9. Ju-52 © Rror is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  10. Boeing247 © San Diego Air and Space Museum is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  11. DC-3 © Towpilot is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  12. Spitfire © Franck Cabrol is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  13. Constellation © RuthAS is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  14. Strahlflugzeug Heinkel He 178 © Bundesarchiv Bild is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  15. F-80 © US Air Force is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  16. Electra © San Diego Air and Space Museum is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  17. Comet © Imperial War Museums is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  18. Air_France_Boeing_707 © Richard Vandervord is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  19. Boeing 747-400 © TD Darmstadt is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  20. A380 © Maarten Visser is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  21. FitsandStarts © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  22. ellehammer © Musée de l’Air et de l’Espace is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  23. CiervaC4 © Hillel Aviation Museum is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  24. EAA_BELL_47 © FlugKerl2 is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  25. wheelwords © AHS International is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  26. Aerial refueling of F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighters at Eglin AFB, Fla. © US Air Force is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  27. MV-22_mcas_Miramar_2014 © FOX 52 is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  28. Holloman AFB F-4 Phantom II © US Air Force is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  29. Concorde © Eduard Marmet is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  30. X-59 © Lockheed Martin/NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  31. ERJ135 © Arpingstone is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  32. Cirrus © A. Hunt is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  33. Pipistrel_Velis_Electro_9992 © Airjuice Photography is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license.

History of Rockets & Spaceflight

  1. 52524105272_f5a9bdcda7_o © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  2. chinese-rockets © Unknown is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. from-the-earth-to-the-moon-jules-verne-14a95a-1024 Licensed under a Public Domain license.
  4. Goddard_patentLicensed under a Public Domain license.
  5. Sputnik © NSSDC / NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  6. explorer1 © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  7. Friendship7 © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  8. Gemini_spacecraft © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  9. EarthtoMoonOrbits © J. Gordon Leishman adapted from NASA public domain images are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  10. SaturnV © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  11. Mariner-10 © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  12. Navstar © NOAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  13. Shuttle © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  14. Hubble © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  15. 1024px-James_Webb_Space_Telescope_(14742910940) © Kevin Gill is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  16. ISS © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  17. pegasus © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  18. Falcon9launch © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  19. SLS_on_39B_ahead_of_launch_(cropped) © NASA/Joel Kowsky is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  20. Starship_SN16.jpeg © Lars Plougmann CC BY-SA 2.0

Module II: Preparations

Mathematics for Engineering

  1. newton_and_leibniz © Randall Munroe/XKCD is licensed under a CC BY-NC (Attribution NonCommercial) license.
  2. PositionVector © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. coordinates © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. AddingVectors © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. ScalrProduct © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. VectorProduct © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. LineIntegral © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. ClosedLineIntegral © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. SurfaceIntegral © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. VolumeIntegral © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. GradientVector © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. rounding © Randall Munroe/XKCD is licensed under a CC BY-NC (Attribution NonCommercial) license.

Units & Conversion Factors

  1. rounding © Randall Munroe/XKCD is licensed under a CC BY-NC (Attribution NonCommercial) license
  2. horsepower © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  3. Angles_units © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  4. kg_slug_lbm © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  5. Temperature_scales © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  6. Pressure_refaltitudes © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Professional Responsibilities, Ethics & Copyright

  1. Ethics © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Module III: Flight Vehicle Design

Aircraft Classification & Regulations

  1. AirplaneMontage © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.  Comprised of the following images, clockwise from the upper left:
    1. Cessna Caravan Float Plane © EurovisionNim, released for use with attribution.
    2. Zeppelin NT-4871-2 © Dietrich Krieger is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    3. Autogyro MT-03 (D-MTBI) © Huhu Uet is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
    4. Cessna_172S_(3-30-2022) © ERAU is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license
    5. Airbus A380-841, Singapore Airlines AN2064183 © Konstantin von Wedelstaedt is licensed under a  GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 license.
    6. Zepper-BK 117-C2-(EC145)-SchweizerischeRettungsflugwacht © Matthias Zepper is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    7. Air Cadet Sailplane © Glyn Baker is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    8. BA609 02 © Dmitry Mottl is licensed under a Public Domain license.
    9. Hot air balloon over Cappadocia, Turkey © MusikAnimal is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  2. Cessna_172S_(3-30-2022) © ERAU is licensed under an All Rights Reserved license.
  3. engine2 © National Air and Space Museum is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  4. fighteraircraft © Staff Sgt. Courtney Richardson/USAF is licensed under a Public Domainlicense.
  5. UAV © Pixabay is licensed under a CC0 (Creative Commons Zero) license.
  6. FAA Image 2 © Pixabay adapted by Cassandra Konz is licensed under a CC0 (Creative Commons Zero) license.
  7. ICAOlogo © ICAO is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  8. EASAlogo © EASA is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  9. FAA_CofA © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  10. FAA Drone © LN_Photoart adapted by Cassandra Konz is licensed under a CC0 (Creative Commons Zero) license.

Anatomy of Aircraft & Spacecraft

  1. assemblies © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  2. WingstructureUpdate © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. stressedskin © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  4. Airbus_A380 © Unknown is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  5. F15_drawing.svg © Open Clip Art Library is licensed under a CC0 (Creative Commons Zero) license.
  6. Turbofan_schematic © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  7. FourForces © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  8. ThreeAxes © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Airplane_HW3_trim © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  10. ControlSurfaces © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  11. ControlSurfaces_ailerons © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  12. ControlSurfaces_elevator © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  13. ControlSurfaces_rudder © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  14. ControlSurfaces_flaps © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  15. LookingAtWing adapted by Gordon Leishman (added labels) is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license. Original © David Monniaux is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  16. FlapSections1 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  17. FlapSections2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  18. WingTypes © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  19. WingStructureTypes © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  20. WingTips © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  21. Tails © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  22. EnginePlacement_PROPS © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  23. EnginePlacement_JETS © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  24. UndercarriageTypes © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  25. LandingGearm is adapted by Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license. Composed of the following images:
    1. G-BGMP Reims F172 @Cotswold Airport, July 2005 © Adrian Pingstone is licensed under a Public Domain license.
    2. Singapore Airlines A380-841 (9V-SKB) taking off from London Heathrow Airport © Allen Watkin is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  26. LandingGear_2 adapted by Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license. Composed of the following images:
    1. Kenn Borek Twin Otter C-GXXB © CambridgeBayWeather is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    2. De Havilland Canada DHC-6-300 Twin Otter, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources AN1100475 © Alain Rioux is licensed under a GNU Free Documentation Version 1.2 license.
    3. JMSDF TH-135(8815) skid left front view at Tokushima Air Base September 30, 2017 © Hunini is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  27. helicopteranatomy2 © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  28. Airship_anatomy © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  29. RocketMotorInternals © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  30. Delta2 © National Archives is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  31. deepspaceprobe © NASA/JPL is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  32. STScI-01EVSVFEBEE8PM3XCN5V24CQE1 © NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center is licensed under a Public Domain license.

Aerospace Structures

  1. Private: Replica_Sopwith_Camel_(G-BZSC) © Alan Wilson is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  2. Private: boxbeamspar © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. composite_materials01. Fair use.
  4. Structure_typesofloading © J. Gordon Leishman/ERAU is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  5. StuctureStressStrainLinear © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  6. wingstructure © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license
  7. SparTypes © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  8. Spar_example © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  9. truss © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  10. monocoque © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license
  11. semimonocoque © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  12. Structures_rivet © EAA and adapted by J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  13. fuselage_hoopstress © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  14. rudder © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  15. wingletstructure © Marzani, A., Testoni, N., De Marchi, L., Messina, M., Monaco, E. and Apicella, A. is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  16. AR-99-Coarse-FEM © Dorin Lozici-Brînzei, Simion Tătaru, and Radu Bîscă is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  17. Spar_lug © ERAU/Dr. Alberto Mello is licensed under an All Rights Reserved license.
  18. Structure_redundancy © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  19. Buckling © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  20. Severe buckling © NASA is licensed under a CC BY-NC (Attribution NonCommercial) license.
  21. Concorde_wingspar © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  22. loftid_rv_diagram © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license
  23. pressure_vessel © SpaceX is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  24. rocket_LH_tanks NASA public domain images. Adapted by  J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Aerospace Materials

  1. The-AIRBUS-A380-aircraft-composite-applications-wwwairbuscom © Airbus. Fair use.
  2. StuctureStressStrain © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  3. Materials_properties © J. Gordon Leishmanis licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  4. composite_fibers © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  5. composites_fiberorientations © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  6. CompositeStressStrain © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  7. Fiber Composite NLR © NLR / R. Klomp-de Boer is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  8. Steinbichler_Shearography_Honeycomb_with_CFRP_Top_Layer_Artificial_failures_that_simulate_layer-core_delaminations_Material © Rafael Schoen is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  9. Helicopter_rotorblade © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  10. Structure_fatigueCrack © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  11. FatigueCrack © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  12. StuctureFatigueSN © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  13. 50091556027_493148a8d0_c
  14. 3Dprinting © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  15. Carbon_nanotube_(8,8)_3D_ball
  16. SmartStrainTemperature © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Module IV: Fluid Properties & Hydrostatics

Fundamental Properties of Fluids

  1. SolidLiquidGas © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. Continuum 2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. Fluid_pressure © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. Fluid_pressure_force © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. Piston_pressure © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Fluid_density © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. Temperature © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Temperature_scales © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Fluid_eqnofstate © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Viscosity_balldrop © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. PlateShear © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. Viscosity_bonding © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. Viscosity_momentum © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Newtonian © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. Sutherlands © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. SutherlandsLaw © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  17. AirfoilStreamlines © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  18. EqStreamine  © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  19. PIVstreamlines © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  20. soundsourcesDoppler © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  21. SurfaceTension © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  22. SurfaceTension_Needle © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Fluid Statics & the Hydrostatic Equation

  1. PascalLaw © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. PascalLaw_point © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. ArchimedesPrinciple © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. Buoyancy_floatation © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. BuoyancyBalloon © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. hydrostaticcube © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. hydrostatic_bodyforces © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Paradox © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. TwoFluidMixing  © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. ArchemedesProof © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. Pressure_curvedsurface © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. PressureReleaseGate © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. U-Tube_1 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a  CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. U-Tube_2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. U-Tube_inverted © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. Inclined_Manometer © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  17. Well_Manometer © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  18. U-Tube_asymmetric © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  19. Manometerstack_ERAU © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  20. U-tubeProblem © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  21. Piston_hydrauliclift © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  22. Car_and_Balloon © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  23. Red_Balloon_forces_Homework © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  24. ScaniValve-scaled © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Atmospheric Properties

  • AtmosphericComposition © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  • AtmosphericProps © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  • ISA_density © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  • ISA_pressure © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  • ISA_temp © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  • ISA_viscosity © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  • SatelliteDrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Module V: Introduction to Fluid Dynamics

Types of Fluid Flows

  1. Colored Smoke I © airguy1988 is licensed under a CC BY-ND (Attribution NoDerivatives) license.
  2. LamTransTurbFlows__alt 2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. BL_on_FlatPlate_listen © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. CylinderFlowPatterns_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  5. Airfoil_InviscidViscous © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. smoothflowhistory © J. Gordon Leishman  is licensed under a  CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. turbulentflowhistory © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a  CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Piston © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Airfoil_MachFlow_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Slirbilder av vindtunnelmodell av flygplan J 35 i skala 1:30. © Flygvapenmuseum is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  11. Delta_A330_vortex © Maarten Visser is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  12. VortexFlows_UMD © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Dimensional Analysis

Mach Number & Reynolds Number

  1. MachRanges_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. MachFlow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  3. Density_ratio © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. soundsources © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  5. SupersonicFlow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. ReMachUnification © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  7. Wingefficiency © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  8. BlonAirfoil © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  9. schlierenbullet © G. S. Settles is licensed under a Public Domain license.

Dynamic Similarity

  1. geosimilar © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. MD11intunnel © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. 4timeschord © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. Proprotor_tunnel © Harlen Capen, NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  5. DragOnShup © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Engineer conducting experiments in towing tank © University of Southampton. Ship Science. is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Problem Solving & Modeling

  1. synthesis © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. science method © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. CFDproblem © Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  4. WingModels © D.F. Feder, M. Dhone, N. Kornev. and M. Abdel-Maksoud [CFD models] adapted by Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  5. correlation © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. FlowModels_Integral © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. FlowModels_Differential © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Aeroelastics © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. problemsolving © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Ockham © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.

Module VI: Models of Fluid Motion

Fluid Flow Models

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Conservation of Mass: Continuity Equation

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Conservation of Momentum: Momentum Equation

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Conservation of Energy: Energy Equation & Bernoulli’s Equation

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Applications of the Conservation Laws

  1. Venturi © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  2. VenturiCV © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  3. Carburetor © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  4. WindTunnel © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  5. Syphon © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  6. PressureProbes © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under an All Rights Reserved license.
  7. PitotTubes © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  8. PitotTube © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  9. Faa_pitot_static_system © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  10. JetEngine © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  11. drag2dbody © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  12. PropellerCV © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.

Module VII: Airfoil & Wing Aerodynamics

Wing Shapes & Nomenclature

  1. Voando_de_Madrid_a_Compostela_5 © Luis Miguel Bugallo Sánchez is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  2. WingPlanform © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  3. TaperedWing © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  4. PlanformTaper © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  5. WingSweep © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  6. WingTwist © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  7. SimpleAirfoil © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  8. WingHistory © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  9. WingBending © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  10. Dihedral © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  11. Dihedral_on_a_TUI_Boeing_737-800_(G-TAWJ)_taxying_for_take_off_at_Bristol_Airport,_England_14May2019 © Adrian Pingstone is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  12. 167th_AS_C-5A_Galaxy © US Air Force is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  13. WingArea © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. WingElliptical © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. GAAspectRatio © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  16. GliderGA © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  17. Dg800 © DG Flugzeugbau is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  18. Delta_A330_vortex © Maarten Visser is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  19. WingletsMontage adapted by Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license. Composed of the following images:
    1. Airbus A350 Winglets © Niklas55555 is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    2. Southwest Starboard Winglet © Formulanone is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    3. Wingtip Fence Airbus A320 © Mariofan13 is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    4. Wingtip device on a Lion Air Boeing 737-900 © Riyad Filza is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    5. Paris Air Show 2017 Airbus A380plus winglet © Marc Lacoste is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    6. Wingtip device on a China Eastern Airlines Airbus A330-343 © Shimin Gu is licensed under a GNU Free Documentation 1.2 license.
  20. Boeing_737-8_MAX_Belyakov © Oleg V. Belyakov is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  21. MeanChord © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.

Airfoil Geometries

  1. oldairfoils © Horatio Phillips is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  2. SymmetricCambered © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. AirfoilGeometry © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. EarlyAirfoils © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  5. AirfoilConstruction © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. AirfoilCircles © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. AirfoilsExamplesSymmetric © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. AirfoilsExamplesCambered © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Airfoil_CFD_grid © ERAU is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. AirfoilsSupersonic © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. SupersonicAirfoil © Jorge Luis Garrido Tellez, Eusebio Hernandez-Martinez, Miguel Toledo Velazquez, Jose Angel Ortega Herrera, and Pedro Quinto-Diez is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  12. AirfoilTransonic_shape © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. 0018 © NACA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  15. 0018nose © NACA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  16. 23018 © NACA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  17. 23018nose © NACA is licensed under a Public Domain license.

Boundary Layers

  1. BlonAirfoilDetail © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. Bl_concept © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. LamTurb_bl © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. LamTurbDiff © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. BL_shear © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. BL_shear_2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. BL_on_FlatPlate © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. bl_profiles_2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Pressure_gradient © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. FlowOverHump © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. Airfoil_TEseparation © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. selligphoto © Gordon Leishman / Michael Selig is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  13. ZeroLiftCDplot © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. BL_roughness © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. F-16XL_NASA © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  16. BL_displacementThickness © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Aerodynamics of Airfoil Sections

  1. Body_forces © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. AirfoilDistributions © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. WingVortices © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. WingInfinite © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. 2dinsert © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. AirfoilLiftDrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. AirfoilMoments_1 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. n23012 © NACA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  9. Airfoil_LiftDragMoment © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Airfoil_TEseparation © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. NACA2412chars © NACA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  12. Airfoil_LiftFlap © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. Airfoiil_laminar_polars © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Airfoils_LowDrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. Airfoil_polar © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. NACA4412_Cl_plot © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  17. NACA4412_polar © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  18. TransonicFlowImages © W. J. Duncan, A. S. Thom, and A. D. Young is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  19. Airfoil_MachFlow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  20. NACA0012_cl_alpha_plot © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  21. Airfoil_GlauertFactor © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  22. cl_versus_mach © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  23. cd_versus_Mach © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  24. AirfoilMoments_2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  25. AirfoilCenterofPressure © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  26. 0012plots © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  27. Linear_leastfit © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  28. Airfoil_PresureDist © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  29. Airfoil_integration © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  30. Airfoil_chord_press_sub © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  31. Airfoil_chord_press_trans © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  32. Airfoil_pressureInt1 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  33. Airfoil_pressureInt2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  34. AirfoilsSupersonicPressure © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  35. AirfoilTransonic_compare © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  36. cd_div_supercritical © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Aerodynamics of Finite Wings

  1. Delta_A330_vortex © Maarten Visser is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  2. WingVortexRollup © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. TipVortexRollup © ERAU is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  4. TipVortex_swirl © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. AirfoilInducedDrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. AirfoilInducedDrag_AReffect © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. polar_AR © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Wing_polar © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. WingsSpanEfficiency © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. An_F-15_creating_its_own_vapor_cloud_over_Elmendorf_AFB,_Anchorage,_Alaska_(4851411637) © Frank Kovalchek is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  11. WingsSpanInterference © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. cl_AR © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. Aircraft_polar1 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Aircraft_drag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. Aircraft_polar2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. WInglet_flow © Maarten Visser is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  17. 1024px-777X_Roll-Out_(40407369583) © Dan Nevill is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  18. Wing+Winglet © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  19. Cd0_vs_Mach_lam © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  20. Cd0_vs_mach_tc © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  21. B727polar © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  22. FighterPolar © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  23. Airplane_Vortexupsets © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Module VII: Other Types of Flows

Bluff Body Flows

  1. SmoothVsBluff © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. Viv-carre © Tiriginiaq is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  3. 2dbluffdrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. 3dbluffdrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. CylinderFlowPatterns © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. SphereCylinderDrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. SphereDiskDrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Sphere_flowviz © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  9. GolfBallFlow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. SmoothRoughCD © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. MagnusSpinLift © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. MagnusLiftCoefficent © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. ConDiagramSFS2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Streamlining © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  15. WingRoot01 © Ahunt is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  16. AutomotiveDrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  17. trailerdrag © Transport Canada is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  18. PARACHUTE © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  19. Shadowgraph-image-of-sphere-at-M-153 © A.C. Charters is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  20. CannonballDrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  21. Bowshock © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.

Internal Flows

  1. Jet engine blades simulation.jpg © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.

  2. X-43A_(Hyper_-_X)_Mach_7_computational_fluid_dynamic_(CFD) © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. ExternalInternalFlows © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. Staged_combustion_rocket_cycle.svg © Duk is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  5. FuelPumpingSystem © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. DiaphragmPump © Ryan O’Connor is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  7. PipePressureDrop © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. PipeAvgFlow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. PipeEntranceLength © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Hydraulic_diameter © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. Pipe_pressures © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. Pipe_LamVsTurb © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. PipeRoughness © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Moody_plot © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. Moody_plot_reading © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. ERAUtunnelfeatures © ERAU is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  17. tunnelcontraction © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Time-Dependent Flows

  1. smoothflowhistory © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. turbulentflowhistory © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. Unsteady_cylinder_shedding © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. TankSideDischarge © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. Flow_waterhammer_pressure © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Flow_waterhammer  © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. dstall © George Barakos published with permission.
  8. dynamicstallprocess © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Turbulent Flows

  1. unsteady_turbulence © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. Turbulence_daVinci © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. Unsteady_turbulence © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. turbulence_vortexeddy © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. Viscosity_eddy © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. unsteady_eddyscales © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. turbulence_mixinglength © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Turbulence_coffee © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. turbulence_grids © Unknown. Adapted by J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Turbulence_modelresults © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. 2560px-DLR_2007_A380_sim_hires © Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.

Module VIII: Basis of Airplane Performance

Aircraft Equations of Motion

  1. Airplane_motion © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. ArrplanePointMass 2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. AirplaneTrim_alt  © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. AirplaneTrim © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. Airplane_HW3_trim © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Airplane_Climb_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. Airplane_PullUp © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Airplane_Pushover © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Airplane_Turn © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Airplane_Turn_fighter © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. V-n_diagram © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Introduction to Propulsion Systems

  1. Propulsion_airplane © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. Propulsion_rocket © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. EngineFlightLimits © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. Piston_Engine © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  5. Turbojet_operation-_axial_flow © Emoscopes is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  6. Turbofan_operation.svg © K. Aainsqatsi is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  7. 2560px-Turboprop_operation-en.svg © Emoscopes and M0tty is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  8. 2560px-Turboshaft_operation_(multilanguage).svg © Mliu92 is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  9. GenericPropulsionAir © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. TSFC_vs_year © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. TSFC_vs_BPR © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. RS-68_rocket_engine_test © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  13. Rocket_motorCV © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Engine_SFC_global © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. 51832329970_1f8522692b_k © Rolls-Royce is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  16. BetaTechnologiesALIA © BETA Technologies is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.

Airspeed Definitions & Airspeed Measurement

  1. MachRanges_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. A Cut View of Air Speed Indicator © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. StaticPort © SempreVolando is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  4. Airplane_SPE © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. TrailingCone © DLR_de is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  6. ASI_cal © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. PitotTubeSupersonic © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Altitude Definitions & Altitude Measurement

  1. Altimeter_workings © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  2. ReadingAlitmeter © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. Altimeter_calibration © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. DensityPressureAlt_m © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. DensityPressureAlt_ft © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. OAT_probe © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. TAT_probe.png © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.  Image uses a cropped close up from MSDF P-1(5504) HAQ-2 EO IR sensor right front low-angle view at Kanoya Air Base April 30, 2017 01 © Hunini, licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  8. EFIS_FAA © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.

Module IX: Details of Propulsion Systems

Piston Engines & Propellers

  1. Piper_N4088F © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  2. Propellor Radial Engine Flight Aeroplane Aircraft © David Donaldson is licensed under a Pixabay License.
  3. Continental_IO-520_2© Stahlkocher is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  4. Otto-engine-all-strokes-2 © Mike Run is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  5. engine-power-03 © Kevin Horton/KitPlanes is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  6. Antonov_An-140-100._Propeller © Doomych is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  7. Propeller_types © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.  Comprised of the following images, clockwise from the upper left:
    1. Propeller3 © Dtom is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    2. Antonov AN-70 at Paris Air Show 2013 4 © Tangopaso is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    3. The propellers of a C-130J Super Hercules military transport aircraft © Adrian Pingstone is licensed under a Public Domain license.
    4. Propeller © RM Bulseco is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  8. Prop_blade_shape © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Propeller_operation © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. propeller_element © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. Propeller_pitch_control © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. CT_propeller_theory_plot © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. CP_propeller_theory_plot © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. eta_propeller_theory_plot © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Turbojet Engines

  1. J85 ge 17a turbojet engine © Sanjay Acharya is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  2. Jet engine © Jeff Dahl is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  3. Turbjet_Press_temps © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license, created using Jeff Dahl’s Jet Engine image above.
  4. noise1 © Mojtaba Sadeghian and Mofid Gorji Bandpy is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  5. Turbojet © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. ThrustCurvesTurbojet © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. TSFCCurvesTurbojet © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.
  8. Turbojet_afterburner © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.  Diagram is based on Afterburner cut view model © Tosaka, licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  9. A 492nd Fighter Squadron’s F-15E Strike Eagle takes off from Royal Air Force Lakenheath © U.S. Air Force is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  10. Simple Ramjet Operation © Konstantin Kosachev is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.

Turbofan & Turboprop Engines

  1. PW4000 © United Technologies Corporation – Pratt & Whitney Division is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  2. ryeeA © k. Aainsqatsi is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  3. ThrustCurvesTurbojfan © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. TSFCCurvesTurbofan © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. hD8lr © Emoscopes/M0tty is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  6. AdvancedPropellerPublicDomain © Samuel King Jr/U.S. Air Force is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  7. Structure-of-turbo-shaft-engine.ppm © Nannan Gu, Xi Wang, and Feiqiang Lin is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  8. F135-PW-600 © United Technologies Corporation – Pratt & Whitney Division is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  9. Safran Open Rotor © k. Aainsqatsi is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.

Rocket Engines

  1. RS-68_rocket_engine_test © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  2. Rocket_motorCV © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. Rocket_motor_expansion © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. Rocket_motor_optimized © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. Rocket_types © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Staged_combustion_rocket_cycle.svg © Duk is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  7. Apollo11 © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  8. 51524997084_b5da6163d2_k © Steve Jurvetson is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  9. Rocket_monopropthruster © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Rocket_coldgasthruster © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Module X: Atmospheric Flight Performance

Takeoff & Landing Performance

  1. Vietnam Airlines Boeing 777-200ER SYD Gilbert © Jeff Gilbert is licensed under a GNU Free Documentation 1.2 license.
  2. TakeoffChart_FAA © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. Airplane_landing © Steven Conry. Adapted by J. Gordon Leishman. CC BY 2.0 DEED Attribution 2.0 Generic
  4. LandingChart_FAA © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.

All other images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Steady Level-Flight Operations

  1. All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Performance Envelopes

  1. AirplaneFlightLimits © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. AirplaneTrim_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. Wing_lift_flaps © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. 309908main_EC89-0096-206_full © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  5. AirplaneFlightSpeedVsYear © Gordon Leishman / Air Informatics is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  6. Airfoil_MachFlow_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. Wing_dragrise © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Wing_sweepeffect © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. SweepSchlieren © NASA / NACA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  10. Wing_coven_trans © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. 4219-136 © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  12. Antishock_Bodies_Visualization © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  13. 1024px-Easyjet_a319_wing_g-ezav_arp © Adrian Pingstone is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  14. AirplaneActualEnvelope © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. AirplaneFlightLimitsJet 2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. flutter © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.

Flight Range & Endurance

  1. PayloadRangeB787 © Boeing is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.

CLIMBING, CEILING & GLIDING

  1. Boeing_767_JA8358_takeoff_at_Tokyo_May_2006 copy © Yamaguchi Yoshiaki is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.

All other images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Maneuvers & Gusts

  1. 1280px-The_Flying_Bulls_Aerobatics_Team_(4715717771) © Kuba Bożanowski is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  2. Airplane_PullUp_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. Airplane_Turn © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. V-n_diagram © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. IABG_Test_Setup_A380_Dresden_bent_wing © IABG Dresden is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  6. Airplane_GustField © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. AirfoilGusts © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. V-n_diagram gusts © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Module XI: Advanced Topics

Rocket & Launcher Performance

  1. Rocket_flightstages © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. RS-68_rocket_engine_test © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. Rocket_motorCV © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. Rocket_motor_expansion © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. Rocket_motor_optimized © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Rocket_Steering © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. Rocket_types © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Staged_combustion_rocket_cycle.svg © Duk is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  9. Apollo11 © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  10. 51524997084_b5da6163d2_k © Steve Jurvetson is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  11. Rocket_monopropthruster © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. Rocket_coldgasthruster © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. Rocket_simple © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Space_launchtoorbit © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. Rocket_Staging © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. Rocket_3stages © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  17. Rocket_Staging_exam © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  18. Rocket_Staging_parallel © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Aircraft Stability & Control

  1. ThreeAxes_Stability © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. AirplaneTrim_alt2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. ControlSurfaces_2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. Airplain_Trim_coupling © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. 1280px-Trimmable_horizontal_stabiliser © YSSYguy at English Wikipedia is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  6. Airplane_Trim_about_0 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. Airplane_StaticStability © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Airplane_StaticMargin © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Airplane_StabDirivs © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Airplane_DynamicStability © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. Airplane_ShortLong © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. Airplane_ShortLongPitch © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. Airplane_StabCofG © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Airplane_CofGLocation © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. Dihedral_stability © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. anhedral_Harrier © Sgt Gabriela Garcia is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  17. Aircraft_Spiral © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  18. Airplane_Directional © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  19. Aircraft_DutchRoll © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  20. 1024px-203bm_-_Abu_Dhabi_Amiri_Flight_Boeing_747SP-Z5,_A6-ZSN@LHR,23.01.2003_-_Flickr_-_Aero_Icarus © Aero Icarus is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  21. Airplane_DorsalVentral © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  22. Beechcraft_1900D_Hex’air_(cropped) © Douchet Quentin adapted by Gordon Leishman (cropped image) is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  23. CHscale © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.

Stalling & Spinning

  1. Airfoil_stall_flow (Image 1) and (Image 2) © DLR is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  2. Wing_lift_flaps © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. Airfoil_TEseparation © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. stall_types © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. stall_thickness © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Stall_Mach © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. Wing_StallCells © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. 3dstalldevelopments © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. WingsSweepTaper © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. B747tripleslotted © the-difference is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license.
  11. FlapSections3 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. Airfoil_Lift3FlapAngles © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. vortexgenerators © Bill Abbott is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  14. Wing_VGs © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. StallStrip1 © Ahunt is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  16. Airfoil_StallStrips © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  17. Wing_Fences © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  18. AirplaneSpin © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Flight Vehicle Noise

  1. Noise_airplane © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. Noise_rocketlaunch_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. Noise_history © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license
  4. Noise_pressurewaves © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. Noise_sphericalspreading © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Noise_interferencewaves © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. soundsourcesDoppler © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  8. Noise_retardedtime © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Noise_rotating waves © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Noise_CFDnoisepropagation © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. Decibel_scale © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. Noise_soundsource_example  © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license
  13. Noise_hearing © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. A-weightingCurve © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. Noise_airplanejetspectrum © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. Noise_jetvelocity © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license. © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  17. Noise_jetengines © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  18. Noise_airplane_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  19. Noise_SonicBoom © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  20. Noise_SPM © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  21. Noise_Lmax © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  22. Noise_SEL © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  23. Noise_SENEL © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  24. Noise_Leq © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  25. Noise_contourmaps © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  26. Noise_helicopter © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  27. Noise_helicopterspectrum © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  28. Noise_advancingblade © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  29. Noise_propeller Image courtesy of George Barakos under fair use. Annotated by J. Gordon Leishman.
  30. Noise_propellertypes © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  31. Noise_rocket © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  32. Noise_internal © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Module XII: Faster, Higher & Into Space

Supersonic & Hypersonic Flight

  1. ErnstMachShock © Ernst Mach is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  2. 493996013_101d4274f1_o © Smithsonian Institute is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  3. AirfoilsSupersonicFlow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. AirfoilsSupersonicPressure © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. Airfoil_LiftSlopeSubsuper © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Airfoil_Supersonic wedge © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. AirfoilMoments_supersonic © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. MachCone © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Slirbilder av vindtunnelmodell av flygplan J 35 i skala 1:30. © Flygvapenmuseum is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  10. Mach_angle © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. Machconehornet © US Navy / Ensign John Gay is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  12. SweepSchlieren © NASA / NACA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  13. Wing_sweepeffect © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Wing_dragrise_swept © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. WingTypesSupersonic © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. Eurofighter_9803_2 © Kogo is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  17. AreaRule © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  18. VariableSweepAirplanes is composed of the following images, clockwise from the upper left:
    1. Tornado f3 ze764 kemble arp © Adrian Pingstone is licensed under a Public Domain license.
    2. B-1 Lancer © US Air Force is licensed under a Public Domain license.
    3. Tupolev Tu-160 Alabino 220415 58 © Vitaly V. Kuzmin is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
    4. Sukhoi Su-24M of the Russian Air Force inflight © Alexander Mishin is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  19. Wing_lifttodrag_F111 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  20. ConcordeIntakeNozzle © Nubifer is licensed under a CC0 (Creative Commons Zero) license.
  21. SSTphotos © SDASM Archives (left) and RIA Novosti archive (right) is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  22. USA_SST_designs © National Archives and Records Administration (left) and (right) is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  23. Wing_VortexFlow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  24. Wing_vortexlift © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  25. Concorde_temps © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  26. SonicBoom © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  27. Lockheed Martin Skunk Works X-Plane © NASA / Lockheed Martin is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  28. Aircraft_hypersonic © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  29. NACA_BluntBodies © NASA / NACA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  30. Hypersonic_NewtonianPlate © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  31. NewtonianHypersonics © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  32. Waverider_concept © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  33. 2880px-Scramjet_operation_en.svg © Emoscopes and Luke490 is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  34. 1220px-X-51A_Waverider © US Air Force is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  35. schlierenbullet-1 © Gary Settles is licensed under a Public Domain license.

Rockets & Launch Vehicle Performance

  1. Rocket_flightstages © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  2. Rocket_Steering © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. Rocket_simple © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. Space_launchtoorbit © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. Rocket_Staging © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Rocket_3stages © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. Rocket_Staging_exam © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Rocket_Staging_parallel © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Astronautics & Astrodynamics

  1. 52524105272_f5a9bdcda7_o © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  2. Space_Keplerorbit © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  3. Solar_System © Elen Danielyan is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  4. Space_launch_2stage © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  5. Space_gravattraction © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  6. Space_acclerationonEarth © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  7. Space_OrbitForces © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Space_simpleorbit © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Space_orbitenergy © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Space_orbitalpaths © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. Space_Keplerellipse © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. Space_Kepler2ndlaw © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. Space_KeplerVelocities © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Space_obitaltransfer © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. Artemis_I_Launch_(NHQ202211160029) © NASA/Joel Kowsky is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. Space_launchtoorbit © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  17. Space_launchprofile © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  18. NASA_SaturnV_drag © Fuller & Fournier is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  19. Space_Hohmann © J. Gordon Leishman
  20. Space_escapevelocity © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  21. First Image of a Black Hole © Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration is licensed under a CC BY (Attribution) license.
  22. Space_MissiontoMars © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  23. STScI-01GKMKK89AW9AX0Q9QA390CB6W © NASA, ESA, CSA, STScI is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  24. Space_orbitaldecay © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  25. Apollo_cm © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  26. Space_re-entry © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  27. Space_re-entry_phases © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  28. Professor-Archie-E-Roy © OISF is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.

Module XIII: Other Flight Vehicles

Helicopters & Vertical Flight

  1. Rotor_technology © J. Gordon Leishman (added labels) is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license, and is based on AW-101 Marina Militare © Peng Chen, licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  2. ellehammer © Musée de l’Air et de l’Espace is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. CiervaC4 © Hillel Aviation Museum is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  4. EAA_BELL_47 © FlugKerl2 is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  5. 1024px-Zepper-BK_117-C2-(EC145)-SchweizerischeRettungsflugwacht © Matthias Zepper is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  6. TiltrotorModes © Gordon Leishman / pjs2005 is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  7. Wingcopter_178_HL_Delivery_ © Akash 1997 is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  8. Rotor_configurations © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. Rotor_helicopter_forces1 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. Rotor_helicopter_forces2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. Rotor_helicopter_forces3 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. RotorWingSpanDiff © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. Rotor_fwdflow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. Rotor_DissymmetryLift © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  15. Rotor_flappingHinge © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  16. Rotor_effect_of_flapping © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  17. Helicopter_MainRotorHub © Gordon Leishman is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license.
  18. RotorWingVortices © Ian Abbot is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license.
  19. Rotor_Hover_Flowfield © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  20. Rotor_hover_model © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  21. Helicopter_annulus © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  22. Helicopter_diskpowerloadings © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  23. Rotor_modmomtheory © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  24. RotorBladeElement_CD0 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  25. Rotor_modmomtheory © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  26. Rotor_FM © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  27. Rotor_PL_FM_double © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  28. rotor_FM_vs_CT © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  29. rotor_Fm_vs_CTsig © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  30. Ground effect sketches © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  31. Rotor_IGE_polars © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  32. Helicopter_SlopePlot © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  33. Rotor_climb_model © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  34. Rotor_descent_model © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  35. rotor_complete_vi © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  36. Rotor_complete_Power © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  37. Helicopter_VRS © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  38. helicoper_problems © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  39. Rotor_fwdflight_model © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  40. Helicopter_inflow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  41. Rotor_fwdflight_FBD © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  42. Helicopter_powercuve © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  43. Rotor_reverseflow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  44. Helicopter_GTOW © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  45. Helicopter_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  46. Helicopter_ROC © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  47. Helicopter_fuelflow © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  48. helicopter_range © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  49. Bo105_Rotorkopf_0570b © Bernd vdB is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  50. Helicopter_swashplate © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  51. Rotor_blade_flapping_tilt1 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  52. Helicopter+Tailrotors © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  53. 1280px-JMSDF_SH 60J(8265)_tail_rotor_hub_at_Tokushima_Air_Base_September_30,_2017 © Hunini is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  54. Blade_section_autorotate © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  55. Helicopter_EnergyStates © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  56. Helicopter_autorotation © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  57. Helicopter_autorotate_trajectory © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  58. Helicopter_HVdiagram © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  59. autorotational-index-plot © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  60. helicoper_problems_zones © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  61. helicoper_advancingblade © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  62. distall.gif © George Barakos. Published with permission of the author.
  63. helicopter_BVI_types © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  64. helicopter_fuselage_streamline © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  65. helicopter_future © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.

Gliders & Sailplanes

  1. Dg800 © DG Flugzeugbau adapted by J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a Public Domain license
  2. Glider_on_aerotow © Paul Haliday is licensed under a Public Domain license
  3. 1902_Wright_glider_fly © User Willy Logan on en.wikipedia, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons is licensed under a Public Domain license
  4. Elliott_EoN_Primary_’AQQ’_(G-ALPS_-_BGA580)_(12329864744) © Alan Wilson is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  5. Aircraft_of_the_Royal_Air_Force_1939-1945-_Airspeed_As.51_Horsa._CH10891 © Daventry B J (Flying Officer), Royal Air Force official photographer is licensed under a Public Domain license
  6. FB_IMG_1679072297658 © Facebook is licensed under a Public Domain license
  7. Slingsby_Skylark_2c © TSRL is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  8. 1280px-Schleicher_ASH_30_Mi_20110407_130336 © Manfred Münch adapted by J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  9. Sailplane_planformshapes © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  10. Anatomy_sailplane © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  11. Sailplane_cockpit © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a Public Domain license
  12. Glider_GlideEquil © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  13. Glider_GlideComponents © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  14. gliderpolars © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  15. Sailplane_singlepolar © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  16. Sailplane_fitpolar © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  17. cdbestfit © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  18. Sailplane_Numbus_Polarbreakdown © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  19. GliderPolar_Nimbus © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  20. Glider_L2D_Nimbus © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  21. GliderAngle_Nimbus © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  22. Wortmann_airfoils © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  23. FXairfoils_polars © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  24. hangglider © Clément Bucco-Lechat is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license

Airships, Blimps & Aerostats

  1. LockheedMartin_P-791 © AMIRAAZAMI6, CC BY-SA 4.0 , via Wikimedia Commons is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  2. T2-_d441_-_Fig._261._—_Premier_voyage_aérien_dans_une_montgolfière_le_21_novembre_1783 is licensed under a Public Domain license
  3. 2560px-NH43901-enhanced © J. Gordon Leishman/Photo: Library of Congress is licensed under a Public Domain license
  4. Anatomy_balloon © J. Gordon Leishman/Photo: Kropsoq is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  5. Anatomy_highalt_balloon © J. Gordon Leishman/Photo credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  6. Anatomy_airship © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  7. Anatomy_blimp © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  8. Anatomy_semirigid © J. Gordon Leishman/ Photo: Levdr1lp adapted by J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  9. Anatomy_aerostat © J. Gordon Leishman/ Photographer: Donna Burton is licensed under a Public Domain license
  10. Anatomy_Hybrid © J. Gordon Leishman/ Photo: Mikes Photos, CC0, via Wikimedia Commons adapted by J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  11. ArchemedesPrinciple © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  12. Airship_floatation © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  13. Airship_buoyancy_balloon © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  14. Airship_ellipsoid © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  15. AIrship_finenessratio © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  16. Airship_slendernessvalues © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  17. Airship_buoyancy_centerof © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  18. Airship_buoyancy_airship © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  19. Airship_ballonets © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  20. Airship_blimp_ballonets_lift © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  21. Airship_blimp_ballonets_noseup © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  22. Airship_blimp_ballonets_cg © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  23. Airship_thrustvectoring © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  24. GR_NT_Heckpropeller is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license
  25. Airship_dynamiclift © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  26. Duquet_prolateflow is licensed under a All Rights Reserved license
  27. Airship_Pressure_dist is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  28. Akron_airloads is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  29. Airship_liftdrag © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  30. Airship_moment © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  31. Airship_dragvsRe © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  32. Airship_power_weight © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  33. Airship_power_alt © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  34. Airship_pitchdynamics © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  35. Airship_criticalairspeed © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  36. Airship_yaw © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  37. Airship_roll © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  38. Airship_phugoid © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  39. Airship_tethered is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  40. Airship_tethered_fbd is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license
  41. Red_Balloon_forces
  42. SphereDiskDrag © Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.

Ground Effect Vehicles

  1. Hovercraft_simple © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  2. Hovercraft-MVPP10
  3. WinginGroundEffect_simple © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  4. AirFish8
  5. Toivo-Kaario-1949
  6. WofRussia11_hovercraft_Levkov_L-5
  7. Cockerell_patent_sidebyside
  8. SR-N1
  9. NASM-SI-94-13035
  10. SRN4_Hovercraft_Mountbatten_Class
  11. USN_hovercraft
  12. Formel 1 Hovercraft Rennboot
  13. alexeyev-sm-2
  14. ekranoplan
  15. lun-md-160-ekranoplan-at-speed
  16. Lippisch_patent_2
  17. X113
  18. aurora-flight-services-liberty-lifter
  19. Hovercraft_anatomy2 © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  20. Hovercraft_stability © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  21. hovercraft_control © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  22. hovercraft_turning © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  23. WingInGroundEffect_configurations © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  24. Ekranplane_drawing © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  25. Hovercraft_plenumdisharge © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  26. Hovercraft_fanplenum © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  27. Hovercraft_jetdisharge © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  28. Hovercraft_dragbuildup © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  29. WIGE_chord © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  30. WIGE_span © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  31. Aircraft_ground_effect © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  32. WIGE_dragbuildup  © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.
  33. WIGE_turning © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution NonCommercial NoDerivatives) license.

Electrically-Powered Aircraft

  1. Pipistrel_Velis_Electro_9992 © Airjuice Photography is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license.
  2. starc-abl_0 © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  3. Aircraft-electricpropulsion © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  4. Aircraft-energydensity © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  5. Electric_motor © Abnormaal is licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  6. 1280px-AERO_Friedrichshafen_2018,_Friedrichshafen_(1X7A4751) © Matti Blume adapted by J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license.
  7. Aircraft_battery © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  8. Aircraft-replacementpropulsion © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  9. MissionProfile_electricA © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  10. MissionProfile_electricB © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  11. Aircraft_payloadrange_electric © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  12. Aircraft-hybridpropulsion © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  13. TurbofanVSelectric © J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND  license.
  14. AgustaWestland_Project_Zero_at_Paris_Air_Show_2013_2 © Tangopaso is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license.
  15. 1280px-Volocopter_at_IAA_2017_1 © Spielvogel is licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA (Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike) license.
  16. Revolutionary Vertical Lift Technology project (RVLT) reference © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  17. Computer network connection modern city future technology © NASA / Lillian Gipson is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  18. NASA_X-57_Maxwell © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.

Module XIV: Worked Examples

Worked Examples: Anatomy, Regulations & Structures

  1. Philippine Air Force (PAF) Cessna T-41 Mescalero in flight © Rogier Westerhuis is licensed under a Public Domain license.  Labels added by J. Gordon Leishman.
  2. Airplane Wing Anatomy © unknown is licensed under an All Rights Reserved license.
  3. Composite sandwich structure panel used for testing at NASA © NASA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  4. Monocoque © FAA is licensed under a Public Domain license.
  5. Vickers wellington frame © Kroidkrensen licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  • All other images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Worked Examples: Fluid Properties & Hydrostatics

  1. Cluster ballooning © omnibus licensed under a CC BY-SA (Attribution ShareAlike) license.
  • All other images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Worked Examples: Dimensional Analysis

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Worked Examples: Fluid Flows

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Worked Examples: Airfoils & Wings

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Worked Examples: Bluff Body Flows

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Worked Examples: Internal Flows

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Worked Examples: Propulsion Systems

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

Worked Examples: Aircraft, Rocket, & Spacecraft Performance

  • All images in this chapter © J. Gordon Leishman are licensed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

License

Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

Introduction to Aerospace Flight Vehicles Copyright © 2022, 2023, 2024 by J. Gordon Leishman is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.