113 Ukraine

Two equal horizontal bands of azure (top) and golden yellow. Although the colors date back to medieval heraldry, in modern times they are sometimes claimed to represent grain fields under a blue sky.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

The Uspensky Sobor (Dormition Cathedral) at the Kyiv Pechersk Lavra (Kyiv Monastery of the Caves) complex. Originally constructed between 1073 and 1078, it was further enlarged over the subsequent centuries. Destroyed by the Soviet Army in 1941, the cathedral was rebuilt between 1998 and 2000.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Ukraine is a member of ICAO, EUROCONTROL, and JARUS.
Last updated on April 18, 2024


According to Britannica, the government of Ukraine underwent rapid change in the early 1990s. Before its declaration of independence in 1991, Ukraine was officially called the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (S.S.R.) and was part of the Soviet Union. According to the 1937 Soviet constitution as amended in 1944, Ukraine had the right to “enter into direct relations with foreign states, to conclude agreements, and to exchange diplomatic and consular representatives with them” and to maintain its own military forces. The only real expression of these constitutional prerogatives in international affairs, however, was Ukraine’s charter membership in the United Nations (UN) and consequently in some 70 other international organizations. (The Ukrainian S.S.R. and the Belorussian S.S.R. [now Belarus] were the only two UN members that were not fully sovereign countries.) The revised Soviet constitution of 1977 further limited the prerogatives of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Within days of the failed coup against Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Ukraine proclaimed its independence on August 24, 1991, and won overwhelming popular approval for this act in a referendum on December 1, 1991. Ukraine was subsequently recognized by other governments, and many international agreements were signed, notably with neighboring countries. In addition, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia formed the Commonwealth of Independent States, which was then joined by eight other former republics of the defunct Soviet Union.

Ukraine adopted a new constitution in 1996. Until that time, the Soviet-era constitution had remained in force, albeit with numerous adjustments.

The highest legislative unit of the Ukrainian government is the unicameral Verkhovna Rada (Supreme Council of Ukraine), which succeeded the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian S.S.R. Changes to electoral laws in 1997 stipulated that half of the legislative seats would be apportioned among members of the various political parties according to their relative share of the popular vote. The other half of the legislators were to be elected from single-seat constituencies by a simple majority vote. This system remained in place until 2004, when the constitution was amended to abolish the mixed legislative structure in favor of a system of proportional representation based on political party lists.

The president, elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term, is the head of state. The president acts as the commander in chief of the armed forces, oversees executive ministries, and has the power to initiate and to veto legislation, though vetoes may be overturned. The president also chairs the National Security and Defense Council and determines its composition.

The early period of Ukrainian independence was marked by a weak presidency and a strong parliament. In fact, Leonid Kravchuk, Ukraine’s first democratically elected president, almost seemed to downplay his role. After his election in 1994, Pres. Leonid Kuchma set out to redefine the structures of power in Ukraine. In 1995 the parliament agreed to the so-called “Law on Power,” which substantially enhanced the role of the executive branch of government, and in 1996 the new constitution gave the presidency considerably more power. A 2004 constitutional reform, which took effect in 2006, shifted some power away from the president to the prime minister, but in 2010 Ukraine’s Constitutional Court declared that reform unconstitutional. The strong presidential powers outlined in the 1996 constitution were thus restored. Those changes were repealed in February 2014, after months of popular protest toppled the government of Pres. Viktor Yanukovych, and the 2004 constitution was reinstated.

The head of government is the prime minister, who is appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature. The president, with the consent of the prime minister, also appoints the members of the cabinet. The cabinet, headed by the prime minister, coordinates the day-to-day administration of the government and may introduce legislation to the Supreme Council. The president has the power to dismiss the prime minister and the cabinet.

Ukraine is a unitary republic, not a federal state. The country is divided administratively into a number of provinces called oblasti; two cities, Kyiv and Sevastopol, carry the same status as an oblast. Crimea is an autonomous republic within Ukraine. In 2014 Crimea was occupied and annexed by Russia, but few countries and international organizations recognized the legality or legitimacy of the move.

The highest court in the judicial system is the Supreme Court of Ukraine. The court’s function is to supervise judicial activities. Constitutional matters are determined by the Constitutional Court.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

State Aviation Administration of Ukraine


SkyVectorGoogle MapsADS-B Exchange

ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Ukraine AIP – requires login information

Air Traffic Services – The Ukrainian Airspace Planning Center of Ukraine and Air Traffic Regulation (Ukraine Center) is the main operational unit of the joint civil-military air traffic management system.

The main tasks of the Ukraerocenter:

  • planning, regulation of activities in the sphere of use of Ukrainian airspace and international airspace under the responsibility of Ukraine;
  • managing the use of airspace within its competence, determining the conditions of use of airspace;
  • implementation of control over compliance with the procedure for the use of air space;
  • ensuring the use of air space, notification of air traffic service bodies and other interested institutions during search and rescue and emergency rescue operations, as well as operations to eliminate the consequences of natural disasters and man-made disasters.

Drone Regulations

Unmanned Aircraft Laws

Air Code of Ukraine

Regulations for usage of the Ukrainian airspace

Rules for usage of the Ukrainian airspace


The order of the airspace usage by unmanned aircraft

According to the requirements of paragraph 4 of Section II of the Rules for usage of the Ukrainian airspace, flights of unmanned aircraft with mass below 20 kg inclusive may be performed without submission of applications for the airspace usage, obtaining permits for airspace usage and informing the appropriate units of Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and Integrated Civil-Military ATM System (ICMS), units of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, units of civil and military Air Traffic Service (ATS), subject to compliance with the following requirements:

1) flights are performed without crossing of the state border of Ukraine;

2) flights are performed outside of the is established prohibitions and restrictions of airspace usage, with the exception of the cases established by the Regulations for usage of the Ukrainian airspace;

3) flights are performed neither closer than 5 km from the external boundaries of runways of aerodromes, nor closer than 3 km from the external boundaries of the runway of small aerodromes (with MTOM of aircraft below 5700 kg) / heliports, except in cases agreed with the operator of aerodrome / heliports;

4) flights are performed not closer than 500 meters from manned aircraft;

5) flights are not performed over:

the assemblies of people at open air and tight city construction;

the objects (zones) that defined by the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, the Ministry of Infrastructure of Ukraine, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, the Security Service of Ukraine, the National Police of Ukraine, the National Guard of Ukraine, the State Fiscal Service of Ukraine, the Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine, the Department of the State Guard of Ukraine, other military formations and law-enforcement structures formed in accordance with the laws of Ukraine and in respect of which protection / state protection is carried out (subject to the indication of the territory surrounding these objects with information signs of prohibition unmanned aircraft flight and / or by announcing the limits of such a ban), except for flights performed under the permission of the above-mentioned authorities;

6) flights are performed within the visual line of sight (VLOS);

7) maximum flight altitude:

120 meters above terrestrial (water) surface outside the CTR, AFIZ, ATCA, ATCZ, specially designated zones and routes, other specially reserved portions of airspace;

50 meters above terrestrial (water) surface within the limits of CTR, AFIZ, ATCA, ATCZ, specially designated zones, other reserved portions of airspace, if there is no information on the actual status of elements of the airspace structure where flight is planned;

50 meters above static obstacles at a horizontal distance of not more than 100 meters from obstacles such as a deviation from the above mentioned height limitations, at the request of the owner of such object;

8) the operating speed of unmanned aircraft is not more than 160 km / h;

In other cases, unmanned aircraft weighing below 20 kg inclusive and all operations of unmanned aircraft weighing more than 20 kg without exception, are performed within specially defined zones and routes complying with the requirements for submitting applications for airspace usage, obtaining permits and condition of airspace usage, informing the appropriate units of Air Forces of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the units of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, the ICMS units, the ATS units.

Responsibility for violation of the airspace usage order

Offender liability for violation of the rules and order of usage of the Ukrainian airspace is established by Articles 281, 282 Criminal Code of Ukraine.

Responsibility of legal entities – subjects of aviation activity for violation of the rules and order of usage of the Ukrainian airspace is established by article 127 of the Air Code of Ukraine.

Responsibility of individuals – subjects of aviation activity for flights in violation of regulatory legal acts regulating aviation activities, established by Article 111 of the Code of Ukraine on Administrative Violations.

The list of types of violations of the order of usage of the Ukrainian airspace is given in paragraph 46 of the Regulations for usage of the Ukrainian airspace.


Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)


Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone to film in Ukraine.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.





Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book