28 Paraguay

Three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an emblem centered in the white band. Unusual flag in that the emblem is different on each side. The obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles). The reverse (hoist side at the right) bears a circular seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words PAZ Y JUSTICIA (Peace and Justice)). Red symbolizes bravery and patriotism, white represents integrity and peace, and blue denotes liberty and generosity.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

Ciudad del Este (Eastern City), formerly Puerto Presidente Stroessner, is a city in eastern Paraguay, on the bank of the Paraná River bordering Brazil. Ciudad del Este’s economy is fostered by its commercial connection with Brazil, symbolized by the 500-m (1,600-ft) Puente de la Amistad (Friendship Bridge) opened in 1965. The city’s tax-free status attracts many Brazilian and Argentine shoppers. Ciudad del Este has a humid subtropical climate.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Paraguay is a member of ICAO.
Last updated on April 15, 2024


According to Britannica, the 1992 constitution is the basic charter of Paraguay. It was drawn up by a Constituent Assembly, which was elected in December 1991, and it replaced the constitution of 1967. The constitution states that Paraguay is a representative and pluralist democracy and that government is exercised by the separate powers of the legislative, executive, and judiciary bodies. The legislative body is the Congress, composed of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. All its members are elected by popular vote for five-year terms (with the exception of former presidents, who are appointed senators for life, though they are not entitled to vote) on the same date that the presidential elections are held.

The president is elected by a simple majority of votes for a five-year term and must be a Paraguayan by birth and at least 35 years old. There is no runoff election if the leading candidate fails to obtain an absolute majority. Alfredo Stroessner amended the 1967 constitution in 1977 to allow his reelection indefinitely as president, but the 1992 constitution specifically rules that out. The president is the commander in chief of the armed forces and is authorized to appoint and remove commanders of the army and police. The 1992 constitution created the post of vice president. A council of ministers is appointed by the president.

The constitution guarantees the right to strike, specific rights for indigenous peoples, and basic civic liberties, including freedom of expression, of association, and of religion. The death penalty was abolished in 1992. Exceptions to the constitution can be made by the president or the Congress only in cases of international armed conflict or serious internal unrest.

Paraguay is divided into 17 departamentos (departments). Each department is further divided into distritos (districts), of which, in the early 21st century, there were some 250, each with local government status. Until 1991 the central government appointed departmental governors and local mayors, but in May of that year direct municipal elections were held for the first time. The 1992 constitution, in another innovation, provided for elections for a governor and a departmental board for each department, also to be held every five years.

The judicial system is headed by the Supreme Court. The 1992 constitution increased the number of justices from five to nine; they are chosen by the Senate and the president and are appointed for a term of five years. Judges who are confirmed for two terms following the terms of appointment cannot be removed from their post until they reach age 75, the mandatory retirement age for Supreme Court justices. The Supreme Court appoints judges of lower courts and magistrates. There is also an attorney general appointed by the president. The judiciary body has budgetary autonomy. Supreme Court rulings have generally been inconsistent and politically influenced.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

The National Directorate of Civil Aeronautics (DINAC) is the organization in charge of regulating, monitoring and guaranteeing that civil aviation activities, as well as meteorological and hydrological activities, are carried out in a regular and orderly manner, providing services with the highest standards of efficiency.


SkyVectorGoogle MapsADS-B Exchange

ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Paraguay AIP

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Drone Regulations

DINAC R 1103 – Resolution No. 2170/2017 “Approving Regulation DINAC R 1103 – Regulation of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) and Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS)”

DINAC R 10 – VOL V I, corresponds to the first edition of the International Standards and Recommended Practices, Annex 10 — Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume VI — Communication Systems and Procedures communication related to the C2 link of aircraft systems piloted remotely.



RPAS DINAC R 1103 Translated into English by Google


Translations of any materials into English are intended solely as a convenience to the public and are not legally binding. The author has merely attempted to provide a Google translation of the original material to English for convenience. Due to the nuances in translating to a foreign language, several differences may exist so before using for any work or pleasure please have the document translated by a professional service!


Unmanned Aircraft Systems are a new component of the system aeronautical that the International Civil Aviation Organization – ICAO, the States and the aerospace industry intend to understand, regulate and integrate them into the general aeronautical system. These systems are based on new state-of-the-art aerospace technologies that can open up new and best commercial, sports, recreation and leisure applications. In civil aviation, whose foundation is related to the notion that a pilot directs the aircraft from the cockpit and very frequently, with passengers and things on board, the pilot’s retirement raises significant technical and operational whose magnitude we are actively concerned with in the aeronautical community. Therefore, it is the intention of this regulation to regulate its operation. The objective of the International Civil Aviation Organization is to encourage States, with reference to unmanned aviation, to provide the framework regulations for air navigation services procedures, for the purposes of strengthen the normal operation of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) in the national territory, in a safe, harmonized and fluid manner, comparable to the
manned operations.
Law 1860/02 “Aeronautical Code of the Republic of Paraguay” in its Title II, “On Jurisdiction and Competence”, Article 7 provides: “It is up to the Civil Aeronautical Authority the application in the administrative field of the
provisions of this code and other legal regulations related to the air navigation, as well as the regulation, supervision and control of the activities, infrastructure and services inherent to air navigation, the investigation of incidents and aeronautical accidents and the sanction of the faults”. Likewise, in the Title XIX “Of the Comptroller of Navigation and Air Services”, Article 334 prescribes: “The Civil Aviation Authority, through its supervisory bodies and control, will ensure compliance with the rules of this code, international agreements, technical annexes to the Chicago Convention, regulations or regulations related to civil aeronautics and issued by the Aeronautical Authority Civil and aeronautical principles for the harmonious, rational, efficient, economical and safe operation of air services. will have the obligation to observe and enforce the rules that affect aeronautics civil, in accordance with the powers conferred by this code and other complementary norms”.
For its part, Article 5 of Law No.: 73/1990 “Organic Charter of DINAC”, provides: “Subsection “b”: “Apply the International Treaties and Agreements of the matter ratified by the Republic, coordinating them with national laws and with the Resolutions of the International Civil Aviation Organization – ICAO, of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and other organizations international”… Subsection “g”: Organize, regulate and establish systems of designed to provide protection to air traffic and facilities airport…”.
In this context, the National Directorate of Civil Aeronautics (DINAC), for Resolution of the Presidency No.: 722/2017 dated May 2, 2017, by that an inter-institutional Work Advisory Commission is formed multidisciplinary body that will be in charge of the study and preparation of the Regulation National for Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) and Systems of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPAS), made up of representatives of the DINAC, from the associations of civil operators (ADAP – AOMP), representatives of the Paraguayan Space Agency, the Polytechnic Faculty of the National University, the Institute of Aeronautical and Space Law, the Commercial Aviation and General Aviation (IDAEACAGPY) of the Faculty of Law and Social Sciences of the National University of Asunción, of the Center
of Aerospace Research of Paraguay (CIAP), of the Paraguayan Air Force (FAP), National Police and the Itaipu Paraguay Technological Park Foundation (PTI – PY).
These devices have been evolving rapidly in the aerospace industry. By consequently, this regulation is based on the characteristics of the right aeronautical which are: dynamism, regulation and uniformity, without ignore the internationality of the subject, provided by the Chicago Convention of 1944, whose Article 8 already mentioned in relation to aircraft without pilot who can fly over the territory of a Contracting State, if he has special authorization of such State and in accordance with the terms of such authorization. The preceding Article continues to mention that the flights of
such pilotless aircraft in regions open to air navigation of the national and international aircraft, are controlled in such a way as to avoid all danger to civil aircraft.
One cannot fail to mention the general operating requirements of the aircraft without a pilot, without highlighting the provisions of Article 12 of the Convention on Chicago of 1944, which urges the contracting States to adopt measures that ensure that all aircraft flying and/or maneuvering over their territory according to their nationality and register wherever they are, observe current legal regulations regarding flights and aircraft maneuvers in such places, establishing in said article that each contracting State shall based on its own regulations and those that are established in a timely manner as long as they are related to the application of this agreement and that all persons who violate the regulations will be prosecuted applicable, reason why the present regulation that regulates the use of of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) and Aircraft Systems Remotely Piloted (RPAS).
This regulation proposes to integrate Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) into non-segregated airspace and at aerodromes. Also, consider the fundamental differences with respect to manned aviation, and found the present regulations based on experiences related to these aircraft. This constitutes a necessity and a continuous challenge, in order to determine the means and more effective and efficient procedures to deal with the respective topics and reflect the three traditional areas of aviation: Operation, Equipment and Personnel.

a) This regulation establishes the general operating requirements of the remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) and remotely piloted aircraft systems distance (RPAS) over the territory of the REPUBLIC OF PARAGUAY.
b) This regulation will apply to air operations carried out with RPAS, whatever its constructive nature, in airspace does not segregated from a height of one hundred and fifty (150) meters as well as in the vicinity of the aerodromes, their approach paths and takeoff.
c) Any natural or legal person who intends to obtain an authorization to operate, market, build, assemble, maintain or repair an RPAS, or purporting to be a member of a remote crew shall conform to the provided in this regulation.

AAC Civil Aviation Authority.

ACAS On-board collision avoidance system.

ADS-B Automatic dependent surveillance – broadcasting.

AMS Aeronautical mobile service.

ARNS Aeronautical Radionavigation Service.

ARNSS Aeronautical satellite radionavigation service.

ATC Air traffic control.

ATM Air traffic management.

ATS Air traffic services.

C2 Command and control.

C3 Command, control and communications.

CMR World Radiocommunication Conference.

CPDLC Controller-pilot data link communications.

HF High frequency.

IFR Instrument flight rules.

ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization.

PANS Procedures for air navigation services.

QOS Quality of service.

RPA Remotely Piloted Aircraft.

RPAS Remotely Piloted Aircraft System.

RTCA Aeronautical Radiotechnical Commission.

SAR Search and rescue.

SARPs Standards and recommended practices.

SATCOM Satellite communication.

AMS(R) Aeronautical mobile service (R) by satellite.

SMS Safety management system.

SSP State Operational Safety Program.

UA Unmanned Aircraft.

UAS Unmanned Aircraft System(s).

UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.

ITU International Telecommunication Union.

UOC RPAS operator certificate.

VDL VHF data link.

VFR Visual Flight Rules.

VHF Very high frequency.

VLOS Direct visual visibility.

VMC Visual flight meteorological conditions.


Note.- In this document the terms and expressions indicated below below have the following meanings:
AIRCRAFT: Any construction, machine or device capable of transporting people or things, that can sustain itself and move in the airspace without material connection with the terrestrial surface.

AIRCRAFT (CATEGORY OF): Classification of aircraft according to specified basic characteristics, for example: airplane, helicopter, glider, free balloon.

UNMANNED AIRCRAFT: Aircraft designed to fly without a pilot on board.

REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT: Aircraft that does not carry a pilot on board the controls.

OPERATIONAL CONTROL: Authority exercised with respect to the initiation, continuation, diversion or termination of a flight in the interest of the safety of the aircraft and the regularity and efficiency of the flight.

DETECT AND AVOID: Ability to see, sense, or detect conflicting traffic or other hazards and take appropriate measures to comply with the rules of applicable flight.

COMMAND AND CONTROL LINK: Data link between the piloted aircraft to distance and the remote pilot station for the purpose of directing the flight.

LOST LINK: Loss of contact of the command and control link with the remotely piloted aircraft that prevents the remote pilot from directing the flight of the aircraft.

SEGREGATED AIRSPACE: Airspace of specified dimensions assigned to specific users for their exclusive use.

REMOTE PILOT STATION: the component of the aircraft system remotely piloted aircraft containing the equipment used to pilot an aircraft from distance.

OPERATOR: the aircraft operator is the person who operates it legally on your own, even when you do it without profit.

CREW MEMBER: Person designated by the operator to comply specific functions during the flight duty period.

FLIGHT CREW MEMBER: Crew member, holder of the corresponding suitability certificate, to whom functions are designated specific to the operation of an aircraft during the service period of flight.

REMOTE CREW MEMBER: Crew member, incumbent of the corresponding suitability certificate, responsible for the essential tasks in the operation of a remotely piloted aircraft during the tour of duty of flight.

RPA OBSERVER: A remote crew member who, through visual observation of the remotely piloted aircraft, assists the remote pilot in the safe completion of the flight.

AUTONOMOUS OPERATION: An operation during which a piloted aircraft remote flies without pilot intervention in flight management.

COMMERCIAL OPERATION: Aircraft operation carried out for commercial purposes, commercial (topographical survey, security surveillance, study of fauna and flora, agricultural and livestock benefits, fumigation, filming of events, and other similar) other than commercial air transport, paid or for contract use of aircraft.

OPERATION WITH VISUAL DIRECT VISIBILITY: Operation in which the remote crew maintains direct visual contact with the aircraft to direct their flight and satisfy the separation and collision avoidance responsibilities.

REMOTELY PILOTED: Control of an aircraft from a pilot station who is not on board the aircraft.

PILOT: Operate the controls of an aircraft during flight time.

PILOT IN FLYING: Person who operates the flight controls of an aircraft and is responsible for its flight path.

PILOT IN COMMAND: Pilot designated by the operator, to be in command and responsible for the safe conduct of a flight.

REMOTE PILOT: A person who operates the flight controls of a remotely piloted aircraft during flight time.

FLIGHT RECORDER: Any type of recorder installed on the aircraft in order to facilitate the investigation of accidents, incidents, and/or occurrences operational. In the case of remotely piloted aircraft, also includes any type of recorder installed in a remote pilot station for purposes of facilitating the investigation of accidents, incidents, and/or occurrences

UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM: Aircraft and its components related that operate without a pilot on board.

REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM: Set of components configurable integrated by a remotely piloted aircraft, its stations related remote pilot, the necessary command and control links and any other system element that may be required at any point during the flight operation.

AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT: Total time elapsed from the moment an aircraft aircraft applies motive power to take off until the end of the run landing. For the purposes of this regulation, it is considered that an aircraft is in flight from the moment power is applied to take off until the end of the landing run.

TRANSFER: Action of transferring the control of the piloting of a station remote pilot to another.

RECREATIONAL OR SPORTS USE: Operation of the piloted aerial vehicle at remotely piloted aerial vehicle system for fun, entertainment, pleasure or pastime or for therapeutic purposes and for no other reason.
Therefore, the use of these vehicles for:
1) Non-consensual photography or filming of third parties or their property or belongings;

2) Observation, interference or disturbance in private life, personal and family privacy, as well as the activity of third parties;

3) The realization of activities similar to aerial work.

RADIO DIRECT CONNECTION: Direct point-to-point connection between a transmitter and a receiver.


Note.- For the purposes of this regulation, they are classified as self-employed and remotely piloted aircraft
2.1 Due to their characteristics they are classified into the following categories:
a) Small: up to ten kilograms (10 kg) of maximum takeoff weight.
b) Medium: greater than ten, up to one hundred and fifty kilograms (10 to 150 kg.) maximum takeoff weight.-
c) Large: greater than one hundred and fifty kilograms (150 Kg.) of maximum weight takeoff.


3.1 The use and operation of RPAS within the scope of the indicated application, must be carried out in accordance with the provisions of this Regulation within non-segregated airspaces, previously authorized by the DINAC.

3.2 RPAs that enter the national airspace by flight or, failing that, when leaving, they must do so through the routes established by DINAC, in accordance with the provisions in the Aeronautical Code.

3.3 An authorization issued by DINAC will not be required to operate an RPA with recreational purposes, entertainment and the like, under the conditions established in this regulation.

3.4 Remote crew members of an RPA must be over the age of age and meet the requirements established for this purpose in this regulation.

3.5 Every member of the remote crew of an RPA must adopt the measures necessary to verify the correct operation of the air vehicle or system before starting its use.

3.6 The operation will be the responsibility of those who carry it out or facilitate it, including liability for damages that may cause third parties during its operations.

3.7 The pilot in command is responsible for the conduct and operation, no person operate the controls of an RPA from a moving vehicle, unless is duly authorized by DINAC.

3.8 The recreational or sports operation must be carried out in a radius not less than THIRTY (30) meters horizontally and TEN (10) meters vertically with respect to people outside the crew at a distance.

3.9 No remote crew member will participate in your operation under the effect of the consumption of alcoholic beverages or any drug that could affect your physiological ability to operate the controls safely; or know is fatigued or may suffer the effects of fatigue during the operation.

3.10 It will not be applicable to the use and operation of the RPA for recreational purposes or sports, in accordance with the provisions of points 3.3; 3.11; 3.17; 3.21 and 4.2 of this Regulation.

3.11 RPA operation in controlled airspaces and corridors is prohibited air, except that a special authorization has previously been obtained from the DINAC with the intervention of the air traffic control service provider, in accordance with the provisions of the Aeronautical Code.

3.12 RPA operation is prohibited in populated areas, such as cities, urbanizations, agglomeration of people, within the area of ​​influence of the approach or take-off path of an aerodrome, prohibited areas, restricted and/or dangerous that have been established as such; except that a special authorization from DINAC has previously been obtained with intervention of the air traffic control service provider, in accordance with the established in the Aeronautical Code.

3.13 Outside of the cases provided for in the previous point, the RPA will be limited to operate up to the height authorized by DINAC, which does not constitute a danger in terms of regarding air circulation. In the event that said operation is carried out in non-segregated airspace, the authorization of Air Traffic Control must be required Air traffic as well, they will not be operated at a distance of less than 50 m (fifty meters), of any building, structure, vehicle, vessel
or person, unless this person is directly related to the operation of the RPA, as it is also prohibited for RPAS to operate at a distance less than 100 m from an air show or any gathering of people such as concerts, festivals, sporting events.

3.14 No RPA may operate at a distance less than the lateral limit of a corridor intended for air operations carried out according to visual flight rules or by instruments, except as authorized in the previous point.

3.15 No RPA may operate at a distance less than the lateral limit of an aerodrome or heliport according to air traffic regulations, unless otherwise established in point 3.16.

3.16 Throughout the operation of an RPA, line of sight should be maintained and continuous, except in the case of RPAS with a wide range of action or the IFR operations previously authorized by DINAC.

3.17 RPA operators must have an operations manual and an appropriate risk management system for its operation, which must include the information and instructions necessary for said operation safely and effectiveness, for this purpose they will follow the procedures established by the manufacturer in case of loss of the communications link with the RPA.

3.18 RPA operators in non-segregated airspace must be duly authorized by DINAC to operate, demonstrating aptitudes for control takeoff and landing procedures, en route procedures, procedures in the event of a loss of link with the control data (data link), procedures to cancel the operation in the event of a failure of a critical system, having to notify the fact to the air traffic authority corresponding, so that the measures related to the case are taken and procedures for evaluating the area of ​​operation, procedures for the identification of risks, potential hazards and for their mitigation, identification of those responsible for the operation and that of all crew members distance (pilot/s and spotter/s) and pilot/s fitness requirements remote/s and observer/s.

3.19 The RPAs will be operated exclusively during the day and under conditions visual meteorological conditions that allow its safe operation. The operation in night conditions.

3.19.1 For the purposes of the previous paragraph, whenever required by the nature of the operation and appropriate security measures are established, DINAC may grant special authorization for operation under conditions nocturnal.

3.20 The RPA must have adequate measures for their protection against acts of unlawful interference.

3.21 RPAS, except as provided in point 3.7 of this regulation, they will not carry out acrobatic flights, nor launches or spraying, except express authorization issued by DINAC.

3.22 The simultaneous operation of more than one RPA by the same station is prohibited remote pilot at the same time. Exceptionally, and whenever nature requires it of the operation and appropriate security measures are established, DINAC may grant special authorizations for this purpose.

3.23 RPAs may not transport:
a) people.
b) Loads.
c) Explosive material.
d) Corrosive material.
e) Material that represents biological danger.
f) Any other type of merchandise, which in case of detachment or leaks represent a risk to people or property in the
Except that DINAC authorizes it as it considers it essential for carry out the planned activity.


4.1 The RPA must be registered in a special section, enabled for the purpose in the National Aeronautical Registry, for the purpose of obtaining a registration national. RPAs with foreign registration must previously register and obtain the corresponding permit from the civil aeronautical authority (for reasons public utility of a temporary nature), before operating in the airspace national.

4.2 The RPA must carry an identification fixed in its structure where it must record:
a) Enrollment.
b) Serial or manufacturing number.
c) Name, surname of the owner.
d) Address of the owner and/or operator.

4.2.1 The remote pilot station will have the mentioned characteristics registered previously of the remotely piloted aircraft that from said station control and operate.


5.1 RPA remote crew members must be of legal age and have the psychophysiological aptitude certified by a doctor authorized for the effect by the DINAC, that accounts for their visual and auditory aptitude, as well as also of his ability to fly remotely, for which he will be issued a license that will be revalidated annually as established by DINAC.

5.1.1 RPA remote crew members shall be tested according to the competence examination by the DINAC in what concerns the regulations in force in this type of activity and its aptitude to operate in the type of air vehicle or system for which authorization is requested, for which who must have an RPA pilot license and a certificate of psychophysical aptitude (class 3).

5.2.1 Communications. The RPA, regarding the use of the radioelectric spectrum, must comply with the current regulations established by the authority competent in radiocommunications.

5.2.2 Inspection. DINAC will monitor and evaluate compliance with current regulations; in case of non-observance, the provisions regarding misdemeanors and the corresponding sanctions. Any design of remotely piloted aircraft systems intended to developed at the national level, must have the approval of a issued by the Direction of the Aeronautical Engineering Career of the Polytechnic Faculty of the National University of Asunción.

5.2.3 Interception, persuasion and disablement. Remotely piloted aircraft must comply with the regulations relative to air traffic; in case of non-compliance, or when it is presumed that the flight violates national sovereignty or its activity is connected with illegal activities, if necessary, will proceed to the interception, persuasion and disablement. For the purposes of the previous Article, the Paraguayan Air Force will make use of all the means admitted in the principles, purposes set out in the Agreement of Chicago of 1944, in the Treaties that govern the matter and other legal norms concordant, avoiding causing damage that endangers third parties in the surface. For all purposes of the aforementioned points, it will be breaching with the provisions of Articles 63 first and second part and 338 of the Code
Aeronautics and laws on the matter.


6.1 Owners or operators of remotely piloted aircraft and remote control systems remotely piloted aircraft are required to take out insurance responsibility for damages to third parties on the surface that could be caused by its operation.

6.2 The air circulation of unforeseen remotely piloted aircraft will not be authorized in this provision, unless you prove that you have minimally insured the amount to which the following paragraph refers.

6.3 The liability of the operator will be limited to 350 (three hundred and fifty) minimum wages set for various activities not specified in the capital.

6.3.1 They may not rely on the liability limits provided in this Article, the owners or operators of remotely piloted aircraft and remotely piloted aircraft, when it is proven that the damage is a consequence of an act or omission of the operator or his dependents in office, with intent to cause harm, recklessly or knowing or should know that would probably cause harm.


7.1 Public RPA are those intended for the official use of public power, such as military, customs, police, immigration and health, although they will also govern for them the regulations on Air Traffic, Responsibility, Search, Assistance and Rescue, except when these may endanger safety of the RPA.

7.1.1 The RPAs of other public institutions not contemplated in 7.1 will be considered private and will receive treatment as such.

7.2 Any issue not provided for in these Regulations will be governed by the Treaties and International Agreements (Annexes to the Agreement), the Aeronautical Code, the General principles of Aeronautical Law, uses and customs of the activity air and analogous laws related to the case.



Paraguay, as a signatory of the agreement on International Civil Aviation (Chicago-1944), according to Decree No. 10.818/45, ratified by the National Congress by Law No. 09/48, which establishes in Chapter 4 “Standards and Methods international recommendations”, Article 37 “Adoption of Standards and International Procedures”, in which each contracting State is committed to working together to achieve the highest degree of uniformity possible in the regulations, rules, procedures and organization related to the aircraft, personnel, airways and auxiliary services, in all matters in that such uniformity facilitate and improve air navigation.
This First Edition of DINAC R10- VOL V I, corresponds to the first edition of the International Standards and Recommended Practices, Annex 10 — Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume VI — Communication Systems and Procedures communication related to the C2 link of aircraft systems piloted remotely, it was prepared by the thirteenth meeting of the Expert Group on Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPASP/13).


Service Agreement (SLA). Agreement between the C2CSP and the operator of the RPAS that covers operational safety, performance, the service area and the security of supply of the C2 link as required by the operator of the
RPAS to fulfill the planned functions.

Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA). Unmanned aircraft that is piloted from a remote pilot station.

C2 link coverage area. Area in which the service can be received C2 link, including the area where QoSD does not comply with QoSR.

QUALITY OF SERVICE (QOS). All characteristics of any entity that influence their ability to meet stated needs and

EXPERIENCED QUALITY OF SERVICE (QOSE). Declaration in which indicates the QoS that the pilot or remote pilot estimates to have received.

QUALITY OF SERVICE PROVIDED (QOSD). QoS statement that the C2CSP reaches or lends to the RPAS operator.

QUALITY OF SERVICE REQUIRED (QOSR). statement of requirements QoS from the operator to the C2CSP.
Note.— QoSR can be expressed in descriptive terms (criteria) listed in priority order, with the preferred performance values ​​for each criteria. The C2CSP then translates these criteria into parameters and measurements relevant to the service.

COMMUTATION. The act of transferring the path of the active data link between the RPS and the RPA of one of the links or networks that make up the C2 link to another link or network of the C2 link.

LINK C2. Data link between the remotely piloted aircraft and the station remote control for the purpose of directing the flight.

LINK SPECIFICATION C2. Minimum performance than the equipment link C2 shall achieve in accordance with system design requirements of corresponding airworthiness.

REMOTE CONTROL STATION (RPS). system component remotely piloted aircraft containing the equipment used to direct the remotely piloted aircraft.

DECISION STATUS ON LOSS OF LINK C2. State of RPAS in which a C2 link outage has occurred, but its duration does not is longer than the C2 link loss decision time.

LOST C2 LINK STATE. State of the RPAS in which the performance of the C2 link has deteriorated as a result of a C2 link outage that lasts longer than the link loss decision time C2 to a point such that it is no longer sufficient to allow the pilot or pilot to distance actively directs the flight in an operationally safe and timely.

NOMINAL LINK STATE C2. RPAS state in which the performance of the C2 link is sufficient to allow the pilot to actively control the RPA flight in a safe, timely and appropriate manner for the airspace and operational conditions.

INTERRUPTION OF LINK C2. Any temporary situation in which the link C2 is not available, is not continuous, has long delays or has an inadequate integrity, but has not exceeded the decision time on the C2 link loss.

C2 LINK COMMUNICATIONS SERVICE PROVIDER (C2CSP). Entity that provides part or all of the C2 link service for the operation of an RPAS.
Note.— An RPAS operator can also be its own C2CSP.

REGISTRATION OF LINK C2. Log of activities related to the link C2.

LINK SERVICE C2. Communications service in which it is provided the C2 bond.

REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (RPAS). piloted aircraft remote control, its related remote pilot stations, the C2 links required and any other components as specified in the type design.

DECISION TIME BEFORE THE LOSS OF LINK C2. Maximum time that is allowed to wait before declaring a lost C2 link state during which the performance of the C2 link is not sufficient to allow the pilot or remote pilot actively intervene in the control of the flight safely, timely and appropriate for the airspace and operational conditions.

TRANSFER. The action of transferring piloting control of a pilot station remotely to another.

LINK SERVICE AREA C2. Area within the coverage area of ​​the C2 link in which the QoSD of the C2 link complies with the QoSR.


Note 1.— The C2 link is the logical connection, regardless of the physical means by which it is achieved, which is used for the exchange of information between the remote pilot station (RPS) and the remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). Allows the pilot or remote pilot to manipulate the flight controls of the RPS that are sent to the RPA, as well as to the RPA to inform the pilot or pilot to distance from your state. The C2 link also allows the pilot to distance to safely integrate the remotely piloted aircraft system into the operational environment of aviation, communications, navigation and surveillance around the world.
Note 2. — In the Manual on Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) (Doc 10019) includes guidance on systems and procedures relative to the C2 link.

2.1.1 Any time reference related to the C2 link service and indication of time of the information transmitted by the C2 link must be expressed in time Coordinated Universal (UTC).
Note 1.— This is not valid for the internal time stamp of the network communications protocol.
Note 2.— The timestamp includes date and time.

2.2.1 The C2 link will only support the tasks of the remote pilot or pilot that is required for the safe and efficient operation of the RPAS.
Note.— Annex 6 contains the requirements for the safe operation of the RPAS.

2.2.2 When the C2 link includes support for the pilot’s tasks or pilots remotely required for air traffic control (ATC) purposes, such as the retransmission of ATC communications, the performance of the C2 link must reach, in a way
securely, the performance required to perform those tasks successfully appropriate for airspace requirements.
Note 1.— Airspace requirements vary with density and complexity of air traffic, and may be reflected in the requirements of equipment or separation.
Note 2.— The alternate means of communication between the pilot or pilot to distance and air traffic control may obviate the need to use the C2 link for ATC communications.

2.3.1 The C2 link service will be used only for the transmission of information related to the safe and efficient operation of the RPAS and will be limited to the information described in 2.2.1.

2.3.2 Each State will designate an authority responsible for documenting and executing the C2CSP surveillance process, in accordance with Annex 6.

Note.— Details on the responsibilities of the State and the C2CSP in related to monitoring the provision of the C2 link service are contained in the Annex 6. 2.3.3 The time elapsed between the initiation and the termination of the link
C2 will not exceed flight time and ground operations, plus time necessary to perform the aviation and operational security verification before and after the flight.
Note.─ The efficient use of the limited resource of the frequency spectrum requires a link to be released and made available to other users when not in use.

2.3.4 The C2 link specification shall be proportional to the C2 link performance that is required for safe operations.

2.3.5 The QoSR of the C2 link will be proportional to the specification of the C2 link that is required for safe operation.

2.3.6 The QoSD of the C2 link will be proportional to the QoSR of the C2 link.

2.3.7 The geographic coordinates of the service area and the service time of the C2 link stipulated for the operational use of RPAS will be validated and verified to ensure that the service area of ​​the C2 link can be used by the intended recipients.
Note 1.— ICAO Doc 9674 contains the requirements related to the quality of the data.
Note 2.— The intended recipients may be the remote pilot or pilot or the ATC units concerned.

2.3.8 The C2CSP will implement a proactive process to anticipate and mitigate the states of interrupted or lost C2 link and describe it to the RPAS operator. The C2CSP will notify the RPAS operator of any scheduled interruption of the link service C2. Measures will be taken to ensure that the scheduled interruption of the service does not affect any RPA during any phase of the flight.

2.3.9 The C2CSP will notify the RPAS operator of any unscheduled deterioration of the service, the type of deterioration that is being experienced and will indicate the duration estimate of said impairment.

2.3.10 Before providing any C2 link service, the C2CSP will demonstrate to the responsible authority initial compliance with the provisions contained in 2.3.1 and 2.3.3 to 2.3.8.

2.4.1 The service area of ​​the C2 link will be compatible with the areas of operation (including contingency areas) for RPA and the location of all the RPS participating in the operation.

2.4.2 The RPA and RPS will always remain within the service area of ​​the link C2.

2.4.3 Recommendation.— To ensure that you always achieve QoSR, you should a margin should be included to account for propagation fluctuations expected from the level of the received signal (in the most severe hypothetical case) to the time to determine the service area of ​​the C2 link.


Note.— Annex 6 stipulates that the operator must provide, for use and orientation of the relevant personnel, an operations manual with all the instructions and information necessary for operations personnel to fulfill their duties.

3.1.1 Before the flight, the C2CSP will provide the RPAS operator with the means appropriate to determine that the QoSD, security and service area of ​​the link C2 meet the requirements for the safe operation of the intended flight
(including contingency operations).

3.1.2 Recommendation.— In those cases where the C2 link service can be supplied by more than one link, the RPAS should use the link with the QoSD highest.

3.2.1 The principles related to Human Factors shall be considered in the design of the RPS so that the pilot or remote pilot can control the link C2 during the flight and prevent its unintentional termination.
Note.— Situations may arise in which it would be necessary to terminate the C2 link during the flight in order to increase the level of operational safety of the flight. However, unintentional termination should be avoided.

3.2.2 The appropriate technical and procedural means will be provided to the pilot or remotely pilots to establish and maintain the C2 link, including interaction with the C2CSP. These means will be documented in the operations manual.

3.2.3 An indication will be given to the pilot or remote pilot when the C2 link between the RPS and the RPA and when it has been interrupted, lost or finished.

3.2.4 During flight planning, the remote pilot will be provided with information about any scheduled interruption of the C2 link during the expected duration of the flight.

3.2.5 The remote pilot or pilot will be provided with the means to verify that the C2 link satisfies the QoSR as part of the RPAS verification prior to the flight.

3.2.6 The operations manual will include the procedure for switching between the links and networks that make up the entire C2 link.

3.2.7 Before switching to another link or network, the pilot or remotely pilots sufficient information about the QoSD of the accepting link or network to confirm that it will comply with the QoSR.

3.2.8 Recommendation.— Switching between links should be minimized and networks constituting the C2 link during the flight.

3.2.9 The operations manual will include the procedure and phraseology for the handover between RPS of the provision of the C2 link.

3.2.10 The handover procedure will include a report on the QoSE level of the link C2 before the handover is started.

3.2.11 A handover will be initiated only if the accepting RPS can confirm that its C2 link with RPA achieves the required QoSR to ensure that the handover is accomplished with success.

3.2.12 The RPAS or the remote pilot shall initiate the C2 link state condition lost when the performance of the C2 link is insufficient to allow the active control of RPA for longer than stall decision time of the C2 bond.

3.2.13 The duration of the decision time on the loss of the C2 link will be defined according to compliance with operational management and safety requirements of the airspace.

3.2.14 Only the remote pilot will terminate the C2 link or authorize its termination.

3.2.15 The C2CSP shall not intentionally terminate the C2 link without consent explicit from the pilot or pilot remotely.

3.3.1 ATC communications retransmitted through the RPA and the C2 link will be consistent with those defined for manned aircraft.
Note.— The ATC communications procedures contained in Annex 10 — Aeronautical Telecommunications, Volume II — Procedures for communications including those with PANS category, and the Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM, Doc 4444).

3.3.2 Recommendation.— Switchovers between links and networks that make up the C2 link during the transfer of communications ATC.

3.4.1 The pilot or remote pilot will be provided with all the pertinent information available on the status of the RPAS to speed up the recovery of the C2 link.

3.4.2 After a loss of the C2 link occurs, the technical and support means will be provided procedure to indicate to the pilot or remote pilot/RPS and the RPA that the link has been restored.

3.4.3 From the C2 link loss decision state, the RPAS will return to the nominal C2 link state or will enter lost C2 link state once that the link loss decision time has been exceeded.

3.4.4 After being in a lost C2 link state, the intervention of the pilot or remote pilot to return the RPAS to the nominal state of the C2 link, in accordance with the procedures described in the operations manual.

3.5.1 The exchange of information between the RPS and the RPA through the C2 link will be secure enough to prevent unauthorized interference with the RPAS.

3.5.2 The design, monitoring system and operating procedures of the RPAS C2 link will minimize the possibility of a
unauthorized takeover of control of the RPA or RPS during any of the phases operational.


3.6.1 The controls, screens and other display devices of the RPS will present the data in a way that minimizes the chances of error, misinterpretation or misunderstanding.

3.6.2 The information on the status of the C2 link will be presented to the pilot or pilot to distance. The remote pilot or pilot will be provided with a real-time indication of the QoSD of the C2 link.

3.7.1 An automatic monitoring system will be implemented in the RPA and RPS that will issue an alert to the pilot or remote pilot if any of the following situations during the operation period:
a) the issuance of the C2 link and/or the subsystem link and/or the C2CSP to the RPS or the RPS has stopped working;
b) the reception of the C2 link and/or the subsystem link and/or the C2CSP of the RPA or RPS has stopped working;
c) the transmission of the amount of information required for a control aircraft insurance has fallen below the level specified by the holder of the type certificate;
d) a C2 link interruption has occurred; either
e) the QoSD of the C2 link has degraded and fallen below the QoSR declared.
3.7.2 The monitoring system will send an alert to the pilot or remote pilot in case failure of the monitoring system itself.

3.8.1 Each RPS will keep a written or electronic record of the C2 link.

3.8.2 Registration will start as soon as the C2 link is established and will end only after finished link

3.8.3 Only authorized persons on duty will enter entries in the register of the RPS.
Note.— The authorized persons on duty can be the pilots to distance or any other person who has knowledge of facts related with input.

3.8.4 All entries will be complete, clear, correct and intelligible. will not be done unnecessary markings or notations in the register.

3.8.5 In written records, any correction will be made by the person on duty authorized. Corrections will include the initials of the entrant, the date of entry and justification, to ensure traceability.

3.8.6 The authorized person on duty will enter the following information into the records:
a) name of the person on duty authorized in charge of the registry;

b) RPS identification;

c) date;

d) opening and closing time of the RPS;

e) C2CSP service establishment and termination time;

f) C2 link establishment and termination time;

g) QoSE of the links and networks used;

h) reason for switching links and networks that make up the C2 link;

i) signature of the authorized person on duty;

j) any lost C2 link state and loss decision events of the C2 link, location of the RPA with time of the event and probable cause evaluated when possible;

k) any detected harmful or significant radio frequency interference, with all possible details; and

l) any information relevant to the provision of the C2 link that the pilot or remote pilot deems valuable. In the record, all time information shall use the UTC reference, and all Geographic information will use the reference WGS-84.

3.8.7 C2 link messages related to C2 link management are electronically logged into the RPA and any RPS that is controlling the RPA.

3.8.8 The record of the C2 link management message shall be retained for at least 30 days after the end of the flight. If it is relevant to the investigation of an accident or incident, the record will be kept for a longer period until it becomes apparent that it is no longer required.

3.8.9 The RPA will keep an electronic record that must automatically record all information described in 3.8.1 to 3.8.8 that is available to you.

3.8.10 The RPA will keep an electronic record of automatic recording of all ATC/pilot or remote pilot communications received or transmitted via voice or data, if it is relayed through RPA.

3.8.11 The RPS will keep an electronic record of automatic recording of all ATC/pilot or remote pilot communications received or transmitted via voice or data.


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2.1.1 The RPAS communications system will include the following systems: A communications system to support the external communications of the RPAS dedicated to airspace requirements functions; A C2 link communications system to support communications internal RPAS, including at least:
a) an interface to the RPS;
b) an interface to the RPA;
c) a transmitter located in the RPS that communicates with a receiver located in the RPA; and
d) a transmitter located in the RPA that communicates with a receiver located in the RPS.
Note 1.— The communication system between the RPS and the RPA of the C2 link may comprise one or more different communication links and may be supplied by one or more C2CSPs.
Note 2.— The C2 link communication system may comprise one or more links and systems on the ground and/or on board and/or by satellite.

2.1.2 The RPAS will have a C2 lost link state detection system designed with an assurance level appropriate for the intended operation.

2.2.1 The RPAS C2 link system will only operate in frequency bands duly awarded and protected by the Radio communication Regulations from the ITU.

2.2.2 The frequency assignment planning for the C2 link system is shall be designed so as to be immune to harmful interference and not create harmful interference.
Note.— The Guidance Manual on the C2 link system contains provisions on frequency channel assignment planning

2.3.1 The link system will enable the RPA to ensure that it can be controlled unambiguously and at all times by an RPS.

2.3.2 The total radiation period of the transmitters of the C2 link system will be the shortest possible, given the need to avoid spectrum saturation and limit the interruption of the C2 link.

2.3.3 The radio frequency transmitters of the C2 link system will not radiate more power than necessary to reach the C2 link specification.

2.4.1 The sequencing of the C2 link system messages will be based on criteria of priority.

2.4.2 In the management of the sequencing of the messages of the C2 link system, it will include a stamp with the indication of date and time.

2.4.3 The order of priority of the transmission of information between the RPS and the RPA will be the next:
a) flight control messages and RPA configuration;
b) high priority detection and avoidance (DAA) messages;
c) air traffic communications, including distress and urgency messages;
d) telemetry messages related to flight safety, including low priority DAA messages;
e) other flight safety messages;
f) routine telemetry messages;
g) air traffic services messages other than communications
ATC; and
h) other messages.
Note 1.— The order of priority indicated is for the transmission of information through the C2 link. The order of priority of the messages transmitted by the communication systems other than the C2 link will continue to be the one indicated in Annex 10, Volume II, Chapter 4, and Volume III, Part 1, Table 3-1.
Note 2.— Distress and urgency messages are defined in Annex 10, Volume II, section

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2.7.1 The QoSD of the C2 link system will be sufficient to meet the requirements operational and performance of the ATC service in the areas of operation planned and contingency of the RPA.
Note.— These requirements include the communication performance required (RCP), the required surveillance performance (RSP) and the performance of Required Navigation (RNP), as applicable.

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2.10.1 The RPAS operator will conclude a service-related agreement (SLA) with one or more C2CSPs for the provision of the C2 link service.

Note 1.— An SLA is required even when the operator is its own C2CSP.
Note 2.— The SLA defines the relationship between the two parties and their respective responsibilities in accordance with the following standards.

2.10.2 The C2CSP shall ensure that the QoSD complies with the QoSR at all times. The C2CSP will conduct, with the RPAS operators, the monitoring of interference in real time, estimation and prediction of risks of interference and planning solutions to possible hypothetical situations from harmful interference under the supervision of the competent authority.

2.10.3 The C2CSPs, the RPAS operators and the competent authorities will act in immediately when your attention is required for any harmful interference.

2.10.4 The C2CSP will have qualified resources and adequate documentation that will allow the competent authorities to carry out their surveillance.

2.10.5 C2 ground communication service providers The RPAS ground equipment will operate in a spectrum of assigned frequencies as described in Annex 10, Volume V, Chapter 5, section 5.2.

2.10.6 Satellite C2 communications service providers The RPAS satellite equipment will operate in a spectrum of assigned frequencies as described in Annex 10, Volume V, Chapter 5, section 5.1. SLAs between satellite C2CSPs and RPAS operators will be ensured that once the satellite network has satisfactorily performed the coordination, which guarantees the level of protection necessary to ensure the general QoSD of the C2 link, the level of protection is not decreased due to subsequent satellite coordination agreements. SLAs between satellite C2CSPs and RPAS operators will be ensured for satellite C2CSPs to act immediately when required attention to any harmful interference. The satellite C2CSP will be responsible for ensuring that once the satellite network satellite has carried out the coordination satisfactorily, the C2 link specifications following the conclusion of subsequent agreements between
satellite operators.


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Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)


Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone in Eastern Paraguay, pictured above.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.






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