12 Colombia

Three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red. The flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Colombia, the short-lived South American republic that broke up in 1830. Various interpretations of the colors exist and include: yellow for the gold in Colombia’s land, blue for the seas on its shores, and red for the blood spilled in attaining freedom. Alternatively, the colors have been described as representing more elemental concepts such as sovereignty and justice (yellow), loyalty and vigilance (blue), and valor and generosity (red) or simply the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of Wikipedia

Google Earth

Colombia is the world’s largest producer of emeralds, more than half of the emeralds in the world come from Colombia. The Muzo Mine, located northwest of Bogota, is one of the most renowned deposits of emeralds in the country. Colombian emeralds are known for their high-quality and for their highly prized rare deep green color. The 167 carat “Mackay Emerald” pictured here is an example of a Colombian emerald. The “Mackay Emerald” is the largest cut emerald in the Smithsonian National Gem Collection. The Art Deco-style necklace was a wedding gift in 1931 from Clarence Mackay to his wife, Anna Case, a world-renowned soprano at the New York Metropolitan Opera from 1909 to 1920. Upon her death in 1984, the necklace was bequeathed to the Smithsonian.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Colombia is a member of ICAO and JARUS.
Last updated on April 5, 2024


According to Britannica, under the constitution of 1991, Colombia is a republic, the public powers of which are divided between the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government. The president, who can serve up to two consecutive four-year terms, is elected by universal suffrage. The executive is assisted by a ministerial cabinet. A Senate and a House of Representatives constitute the bicameral legislature, whose members are elected to four-year terms. The House members are elected by districts corresponding to the departments, while 100 of the 102 members of the Senate are elected by a nationwide constituency and two by the indigenous communities.

The country is divided for administrative purposes into 32 departments and the capital district of Bogotá. The departments are headed by elected governors, and each has an elected legislature. The departments are subdivided into municipalities, which are headed by elected mayors.

The Colombian political process originated during the formation of the republic. Since then, the two largest political parties, the Liberals and the Conservatives, have almost constantly vied with each other for power, the exception being 1957–74 when they formed a coalition government (see La Violencia, dictatorship, and democratic restoration). Suffrage is extended to all citizens 18 years of age and older. Citizens are guaranteed civil rights, including the right to strike, to assemble, and to petition; freedom of the press is also guaranteed. All male citizens between the ages of 18 and 30 may be called for military service.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

The Civil Aviation Authority of Colombia – “Aeronautica Civil” – strives to ensure the orderly development of civil aviation in Colombia, the aviation industry, and the safe use of its airspace, facilitating different modes of transportation enhancing the country’s competitiveness.​​


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ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Colombia Airspace

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Drone Regulations

​​​​​​​Resolution No. 04201 of December 27, 2018, has the purpose of expanding the information and giving compliance instructions in reference to the Airworthiness and Operations requirements necessary for the registration of operators, operators and equipment, and to request permission to carry out UAS flights, in accordance with the provisions of appendix 13 of the Colombian Aeronautical Regulations (RAC 91), in relation to the performance of operations of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems – RPAS In Colombia.

More information can be found on the CAA/NAA of Columbia UAS Web page.

Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)

2021 – Urban Air Mobility: How to build an operating system in Latin America


Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone in Colombia.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.





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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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