82 Hungary

Three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green; the flag dates to the national movement of the 18th and 19th centuries, and fuses the medieval colors of the Hungarian coat of arms with the revolutionary tricolor form of the French flag; folklore attributes virtues to the colors: red for strength, white for faithfulness, and green for hope. Alternatively, the red is seen as being for the blood spilled in defense of the land, white for freedom, and green for the pasturelands that make up so much of the country.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

The Hungarian Parliament Building is situated on Kossuth Square in the Pest side of the city, on the eastern bank of the Danube. It was designed by Hungarian architect Imre Steindl in neo-Gothic style and completed in 1904. It is still the largest building in Hungary. Standing 96 m (315 ft) high, it is one of the two tallest buildings in Budapest, along with Saint Stephen’s Basilica. The height number of 96 refers to the nation’s millennium, 1896, and the conquest of the Kingdom of Hungary in 896. The main façade overlooks the River Danube, but the official main entrance is from the square on the east side of the building.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Hungary is a member of ICAO, EUROCONTROL, EASA, and the EU.
Last updated on April 18, 2024


According to Britannica, the modern political system in Hungary contained elements of autocracy throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, but in the period between 1867 and 1948 it had a functioning parliament with a multiparty system and a relatively independent judiciary. After the communist takeover in 1948, a Soviet-style political system was introduced, with a leading role for the Communist Party, to which the legislative and executive branches of the government and the legal system were subordinated. In that year, all rival political parties were abolished, and the Hungarian Social Democratic Party was forced to merge with the Communist Party and thus form the Hungarian Workers’ Party. After the Revolution of 1956 it was reorganized as the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, which survived until the fall of communism in 1989.

In 1989 dramatic political reforms accompanied the economic transformation taking place. After giving up its institutionalized leading role, the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party abolished itself (with the exception of a small splinter group that continues under its old name) and reshaped itself into the Hungarian Socialist Party. In October 1989 a radical revision of the 1949 constitution, which included some 100 changes, introduced a multiparty parliamentary system of representative democracy, with free elections. The legislative and executive branches of the government were separated, and an independent judicial system was created. The revision established a Constitutional Court, elected by Parliament, which reviews the constitutionality of legislation and may annul laws. It also provides for an ombudsman for the protection of constitutional civil rights and ombudsmens’ groups for the protection of national and ethnic minority rights.

The 1989 constitution was amended repeatedly, and a controversial new constitution, pushed through by Prime Minister Viktor Orbán’s centre-right government, was promulgated in January 2012. Among other significant recent revisions of Hungarian law was a change in 2010 that allowed nonresidents to attain citizenship if they could prove their Hungarian ancestry and mastery of the Hungarian language.

Supreme legislative power is granted to the unicameral National Assembly, which elects the president of the republic, the Council of Ministers, the president of the Supreme Court, and the chief prosecutor. The main organ of state administration is the Council of Ministers, which is headed by the prime minister. The president, who may serve two five-year terms, is commander in chief of the armed forces but otherwise has limited authority. The right of the people to propose referendums is guaranteed.

Hungary is divided administratively into 19 megyék (counties), which are further split into 174 districts (járások). Budapest has a special status as the capital city (főváros), headed by a lord mayor (főpolgármester) and divided into 23 districts (kerületek), each headed by its own mayor (polgármester). There are also 23 cities and towns with county status (megyei jogú városok). Among the extensive changes to the political system introduced by the Fidesz party after its sweeping victory in the 2010 federal elections was a significant reform of Hungary’s local government structure. Changes to the system of finance and to administrative responsibilities enhanced the powers of the central government agencies and institutions at the expense of local and regional governments, whose purview was limited to providing basic services.

As a result of judicial reform that began in 2012, the administration of Hungary’s courts was centralized under the president of the National Judiciary Office (NJO). Elected by parliament, the NJO president has extensive power over the court system, including the recruitment and promotion of judges, as well as control of the system’s purse strings. Because the counterbalancing powers of the National Judiciary Council—the self-governing body of judges elected by other judges, are considerably less than those of the NJO, a number of European organizations, including the European Commission, have stridently questioned the independence and impartiality of the Hungarian judicial system.

At the top of Hungary’s four-tiered ordinary court system is the Kúria, or Supreme Court. Beneath it are the Regional Courts of Appeal, Regional Courts, and District Courts, as well as Administrative and Labour courts. The constitutionality of the laws is overseen by the Constitutional Court, which began operation in 1990.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

The National Transport Authority is an agency of the government of Hungary. Its head office is in Budapest. The agency, which governs air, road, railway, and water transport, began operations on 1 January 2007. It had replaced the General Inspectorate of Transport, the Central Inspectorate for Transport, the Local Transport Inspectorates in the counties of Hungary, and the Civil Aviation Authority. The Transportation Safety Bureau is the agency that investigates transport accidents and incidents.


SkyVectorGoogle MapsADS-B Exchange

ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Hungaro Control AIP

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Drone Regulations

Register your drone – Registration of UAS operator in the case of a natural person

and other online forms

The application is from the Unmanned Aircraft System ( UAS ) operator register

Application in the register of operators of unmanned aerial vehicle systems ( UAS )

Application for a Light UAS Operator’s Certificate (LUC)

The application is from the Unmanned Aircraft System ( UAS ) operator register

Application in the register of operators of unmanned aerial vehicle systems ( UAS )

Registration of UAS operator in the case of a legal entity

UAS registration in the case of a legal entity owner

Request for Unmanned Aircraft System ( UAS ) registered data

UAS Operating License Application


MydronespaceAirspace use permit. In order to protect the fundamental right to privacy, operations may only be carried out in occasional airspace over a populated area. You must initiate the designation of emergency airspace at the military aviation authority.

Google translation of the above infographic:
1. Appropriate liability insurance is necessary to operate a drone. Never forget that you are responsible for any damage you may cause.
2. Familiarize yourself with the main structure and the related rules. Always be clear with the current terrain formations, especially terrain where drones are prohibited or restricted. The Mydronespace application helps with this. Make sure that the weather conditions are suitable for the operation.
3. It is only permissible to carry out an operation over a residential area on a case-by-case basis in order to protect the fundamental right to privacy. You have to start the case-by-case designation with the highest military rank.
4. Carefully check your drone before each flight to make sure it is suitable for performing the operation safely. Check the battery status and make sure your device is working properly.
5. There are facilities that are extremely important from the point of view of the operation of the state, as well as events and locations where flying is prohibited or only possible under specific conditions and with a special permit (e.g. Katana bases, prisons, accident sites).
6. Never fly near airplanes, because the drone is not always accessible from aboard them, and this could lead to an accident. Flying a drone near airports is also prohibited, and at night at some airports it is only possible with special consent, in order to ensure that the lives of the people on board the air vehicles taking off and landing are not in danger.
7. Do not fly over people if you do not meet the special requirements for this and keep them safe.
8. Always keep your drone at such a distance that it remains visible to the naked eye for the entire duration of the flight, if you do not meet the conditions for operating outside of line of sight. Trust your drone’s capabilities.
9. Fly responsibly, keeping ethical aspects in mind, so as not to disturb the privacy of others. Do not photograph, video or record people without their consent.
10. Obtain relevant information, permits, and accesses relevant to your operation.


Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)

2021 – Budapest residents are quite welcoming towards urban air mobility vehicles

2023 – Rolls-Royce awarded EUR4.6 million from Hungarian Government to advance AAM electric flight


Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone to film in Budapest, pictured above.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.





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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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