MO – Missouri

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The Gateway Arch in St. Louis

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Missouri government website just for reference.

The MODOT website just for reference.

Missouri Legislature in case more laws were written since the book was published.

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Last updated on June 4, 2024

Airspace

In addition to checking the FAA UAS Facility Map or B4UFLY or SkyVector or Google Maps one should consider also FAA JO 7400.10F – Special Use Airspace which is an order, published yearly, providing a listing of all regulatory and non-regulatory special use airspace areas, as well as issued but not yet implemented amendments to those areas established by the FAA.

Special Use Airspace consists of airspace of defined dimensions identified by an area on the surface of the earth wherein activities must be confined because of their nature, or wherein limitations are imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a part of those activities, or both. The vertical limits of special use airspace are measured by designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above MSL. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described by geographic coordinates or other appropriate references that clearly define their perimeter. The period of time during which a designation of special use airspace is in effect is stated in the designation. All bearings and radials in this part are true from point of origin. Unless otherwise specified, all mileages in this part are stated as statute miles.

Restricted Areas: No person may operate an aircraft within a restricted area between the designated altitudes and during the time of designation, unless they have the advance permission of:

(a) The using agency described in § 73.15; or

(b) The controlling agency described in § 73.17.

These using agencies may be the agency, organization, or military command whose activity within a restricted area necessitated the area being so designated. Upon the request of the FAA, the using agency shall execute a letter establishing procedures for joint use of a restricted area by the using agency and the controlling agency, under which the using agency would notify the controlling agency whenever the controlling agency may grant permission for transit through the restricted area in accordance with the terms of the letter. The using agency shall:

(1) Schedule activities within the restricted area;

(2) Authorize transit through, or flight within, the restricted area as feasible; and

(3) Contain within the restricted area all activities conducted therein in accordance with the purpose for which it was designated.

For the purposes of this part, the controlling agency is the FAA facility that may authorize transit through or flight within a restricted area in accordance with a joint-use letter issued under § 73.15.

Prohibited Areas: No person may operate an aircraft within a prohibited area unless authorization has been granted by the using agency. For the purpose of this subpart, the using agency is the agency, organization or military command that established the requirements for the prohibited area.

Military Operations Areas: A Military Operations Area (MOA) is airspace established outside of Class A airspace to separate/segregate certain nonhazardous military activities from IFR traffic and to identify for VFR traffic where these activities are conducted. Activities. MOA’s are established to contain certain military activities such as air combat maneuvers, air intercepts, acrobatics, etc.

Alert Areas:  Airspace which may contain a high volume of pilot training activities or an unusual type of aerial activity, neither of which is hazardous to aircraft.

Warning Areas: A non regulatory warning area is airspace of defined dimensions designated over international waters that contains activity which may be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. The purpose of such warning areas is to warn nonparticipating pilots of the potential danger. Activities may be hazardous.

National Security Areas: A national security area (NSA) consists of airspace of defined vertical and lateral dimensions established at locations where there is a requirement for increased security of ground facilities. The purpose of such national security areas is to request pilot cooperation by voluntarily avoiding flight through the NSA. When circumstances dictate a need for a greater level of security, flight in an NSA may be temporarily prohibited by regulation under the provisions of 14 CFR Section 99.7, Special Security Instructions. Such prohibitions will be issued by FAA Headquarters and disseminated via the US NOTAM System.

 

 

 

Crewed Aircraft in your Airspace

CREWED AIRCRAFT

Lastly, if you want to be informed about crewed aircraft flying in the vicinity of your drone operation, you can always check with apps like FlightAware or ADS-B Exchange

 

 

Missouri Statute 217.850

217.850

Correctional center, unlawful use of UA over, offense of — permissible acts — violation, penalty — signage to be posted.

1. A person commits the offense of unlawful use of UA over a correctional center if he or she purposely:

(1) Operates an unmanned aircraft within a vertical distance of four hundred feet over a correctional center’s secure perimeter fence; or

(2) Allows an UA to make contact with a correctional center, including any person or object on the premises of or within the facility.

2. For purposes of this section, “correctional center” shall include:

(1) Any correctional center as defined in section 217.010;

(2) Any private jail as defined in section 221.095; and

(3) Any county or municipal jail.

3. The provisions of this section shall not prohibit the operation of an unmanned aircraft by:

(1) An employee of the correctional center at the direction of the chief administrative officer of the facility;

(2) A person who has written consent from the chief administrative officer of the facility;

(3) An employee of a law enforcement agency, fire department, or emergency medical service in the exercise of official duties;

(4) A government official or employee in the exercise of official duties;

(5) A public utility or a rural electric cooperative if:

(a) The UA is used for the purpose of inspecting, repairing, or maintaining utility transmission or distribution lines or other utility equipment or infrastructure;

(b) The utility notifies the correctional center before flying the unmanned aircraft, except during an emergency; and

(c) The person operating the unmanned aircraft does not physically enter the prohibited space without an escort provided by the correctional center;

(6) An employee of a railroad in the exercise of official duties on any land owned or operated by a railroad corporation regulated by the Federal Railroad Administration; or

(7) A person operating an unmanned aircraft pursuant to and in compliance with any waiver issued by the Federal Aviation Authority under 14 C.F.R. Section 107.200.

4. The offense of unlawful use of unmanned aircraft over a correctional center shall be punishable as an infraction unless the person uses an unmanned aircraft for the purpose of:

(1) Delivering a gun, knife, weapon, or other article that may be used in such manner to endanger the life of an offender or correctional center employee, in which case the offense is a class B felony;

(2) Facilitating an escape from confinement under section 575.210, in which case the offense is a class C felony; or

(3) Delivering a controlled substance, as that term is defined under section 195.010, in which case the offense is a class D felony.

5. Each correctional center shall post a sign warning of the provisions of this section. The sign shall be at least eleven inches by fourteen inches and posted in a conspicuous place.

Missouri Statute 577.800

577.800

Unlawful use of UA over open-air facility, offense of — permissible acts — violation, penalty — signage.

1. A person commits the offense of unlawful use of UA over an open-air facility if he or she purposely:

(1) Operates an UA within a vertical distance of four hundred feet from the ground and within the property line of an open-air facility; or

(2) Uses an UA with the purpose of delivering to a person within an open-air facility any object described in subdivision (1) or (2) of subsection 4 of this section.

2. For purposes of this section, “open-air facility” shall mean any sports, theater, music, performing arts, or other entertainment facility with a capacity of five thousand people or more and not completely enclosed by a roof or other structure.

3. The provisions of this section shall not prohibit the operation of an UA by:

(1) An employee of an open-air facility at the direction of the president or chief executive officer of the open-air facility;

(2) A person who has written consent from the president or chief executive officer of the open-air facility;

(3) An employee of a law enforcement agency, fire department, or emergency medical service in the exercise of official duties;

(4) A government official or employee in the exercise of official duties;

(5) A public utility or a rural electric cooperative if:

(a) The UA is used for the purpose of inspecting, repairing, or maintaining utility transmission or distribution lines or other utility equipment or infrastructure;

(b) The utility or cooperative notifies the open-air facility before flying the UA, except during an emergency; and

(c) The person operating the UA does not physically enter the prohibited space without an escort provided by the open-air facility; or

(6) An employee of a railroad in the exercise of official duties on any land owned or operated by a railroad corporation regulated by the Federal Railroad Administration.

4. The offense of unlawful use of UA over an open-air facility shall be punishable as an * infraction unless the person uses an UA for:

(1) Delivering a gun, knife, weapon, or other article that may be used in such manner to endanger the life of an employee or guest at an open-air facility, in which case the offense is a class B felony; or

(2) Delivering a controlled substance, as that term is defined under section 195.010, in which case the offense is a class D felony.

5. Each open-air facility shall post a sign warning of the provisions of this section.  The sign shall be at least eleven inches by fourteen inches and posted in a conspicuous place.

Missouri Statute 632.575

632.575

Unlawful use of UA over a mental health hospital, offense of — permissible acts — signage — violation, penalty.

1. A person commits the offense of unlawful use of UA over a mental health hospital if he or she purposely:

(1) Operates an UA within a vertical distance of four hundred feet over the mental health hospital’s property line; or

(2) Uses an UA to deliver to a person confined in a mental health hospital any object described in subdivision (1) or (3) of subsection 6 of this section.

2. For the purposes of subsection 1 of this section, vertical distance extends from ground level.

3. For purposes of this section, “mental health hospital” shall mean a facility operated by the department of mental health to provide inpatient evaluation, treatment, or care to persons suffering from a mental disorder, as defined under section 630.005; mental illness, as defined under section 630.005; or mental abnormality, as defined under section 632.480.

4. The provisions of this section shall not prohibit the operation of an UA by:

(1) An employee of the mental health hospital at the direction of the chief administrative officer of the mental health hospital;

(2) A person who has written consent from the chief administrative officer of the mental health hospital;

(3) An employee of a law enforcement agency, fire department, or emergency medical service in the exercise of official duties;

(4) A government official or employee in the exercise of official duties;

(5) A public utility or a rural electric cooperative if:

(a) The UA is used for the purpose of inspecting, repairing, or maintaining utility transmission or distribution lines or other utility equipment or infrastructure;

(b) The utility notifies the mental health hospital before flying the UA, except during an emergency; and

(c) The person operating the UA does not physically enter the prohibited space without an escort provided by the mental health hospital;

(6) An employee of a railroad in the exercise of official duties on any land owned or operated by a railroad corporation regulated by the Federal Railroad Administration; or

(7) A person operating an UA pursuant to and in compliance with any waiver issued by the FAA under 14 CFR 107.200.

5. Each mental health hospital shall post a sign warning of the provisions of this section.  The sign shall be at least eleven inches by fourteen inches and posted in a conspicuous place.

6. The offense of unlawful use of UA over a mental health hospital shall be punishable as an infraction unless the person uses an UA for the purpose of:

(1) Delivering a gun, knife, weapon, or other article that may be used in such manner to endanger the life of a patient or mental health hospital employee, in which case the offense is a class B felony;

(2) Facilitating an escape from commitment or detention under section 575.195, in which case the offense is a class C felony; or

(3) Delivering a controlled substance, as that term is defined under section 195.010, in which case the offense is a class D felony.

Berkeley Municipal Code 210.610 

Berkeley Municipal Code 210.610

Definitions. For purposes of this Section, the following words and phrases shall have the following meanings:

COMMERCIAL PURPOSE: Receiving anything of value resulting from the operation of the unmanned aircraft system.

OPERATE: To pilot, steer, direct, fly or manage a small unmanned aircraft through the air. The term “operate” includes managing or initiating a computer system that pilots, steers, directs, flies or manages an unmanned aircraft.

REMOTE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM PILOT: The person who:

  1. Has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight;
  2. Has been designated as pilot in command before or during the flight; and
  3. Holds the appropriate category, class, and type rating, if appropriate, for the conduct of the flight.
SURVEILLANCE:  The gathering, without permission and in a manner that is offensive to a reasonable person, of visual images, physical impressions, sound recordings, data or other information involving the private, personal, business or familial activities of another person, business or entity, or that otherwise intrudes upon the privacy, solitude or seclusion of another person, business or entity regardless of whether physical onto the land of such person, business or other entity, or into the airspace above the land of such other person, business or other entity in connection with such surveillance.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT (also known as “DRONE”): An aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft. An aerial vehicle that:
1. Does not carry a human operator and is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft;
2. Uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift;
3. Can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely; and
4. Can be expendable or recoverable.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM: An unmanned aircraft, and associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft) that is required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system. To be part of an unmanned aircraft system, the unmanned aircraft must be:

1. Capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere;
2. Flown within the visual line of sight of the person operating the aircraft or visual observer; and
3. Flown for hobby, recreational or commercial purposes.
VISUAL OBSERVER: A person who is designated by the operator of an unmanned aircraft system to assist the operator to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.
Operation Provisions.

1. Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall adhere to applicable Federal and State regulations, rules, in place and implemented thereafter.

2. Unmanned aircraft systems must remain below any surrounding obstacles within the airspace, when possible.
3. The unmanned aircraft system must remain within visual line of sight of the operator of such. Alternatively, the unmanned aircraft must remain within the visual line of sight of a visual observer, provided that the operator of the unmanned aircraft system and the visual observer maintain effective communication with each other at all times.
4. Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not intentionally operate such over persons unprotected by shelter or moving vehicles, or within twenty-five (25) feet from any person, building, or vehicle.
5. Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not operate such in adverse weather conditions, such as in high winds or reduced visibility.
6. Operators or visual observers of unmanned aircraft systems shall not be under the influence of alcohol or controlled substances when such are in operation.
7. Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall ensure the operating environment is safe and shall not operate such in a reckless or negligent manner so as to endanger the life or property of another.
8. Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not, without the consent of the owner of the property, public utility, or appropriate governmental entity operate such within one hundred (100) feet of or over sensitive infrastructure or property, such as power stations, utility lines, water treatment facilities, correctional facilities, heavily traveled roadways, government facilities or other public utility facilities.
9. It shall be unlawful to knowingly operate an unmanned aircraft system directly over the private property of another without the property owner’s consent, if the operation of such:
a. Enters into the immediate reaches of the air space next to private property, and
b. If it interferes substantially with the property owner’s use and enjoyment of their property.
10. All unmanned aircraft systems shall be limited to daylight only operations.
11. Except as may be otherwise expressly permitted by Federal or State law, it shall be unlawful to operate any unmanned aircraft systems weighing in excess of fifty-five (55) pounds in the City.
12. It shall be unlawful to operate an unmanned aircraft system for surveillance within the City limits of the City of Berkeley. It shall be unlawful for any employee to operate an unmanned aircraft system for surveillance within the City limits in the performance of his/her work.
13. A remote UAS pilot must have in his/her possession an FAA commercial remote pilot certificate and display that certificate upon request by an authorized official such as a Police Officer if flying for commercial purposes.
14. It shall be unlawful to operate an unmanned aircraft system over or adjacent to any City-sponsored event or athletic event, bicycle race, City swimming pool, fireworks display, parade or emergency scene such as a fire, motor vehicle accident or crime scene.
15. An operator of an unmanned aircraft system must have in their possession the unmanned aircraft system registration as issued by the FAA at time of flight and display that registration upon request of an authorized official, such as a Police Officer.
16. A remote unmanned aircraft system pilot must have in their possession an FAA Commercial Remote Pilot Certificate and display that certificate upon request by an authorized official such as a Police Officer if flying for commercial purposes.
17. Notwithstanding the provisions set forth herein, nothing in this Section shall be construed so as to prohibit the use of unmanned aircraft systems by a Law Enforcement Agency, Fire Protection District or the City of Berkeley.
18. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, the owner or operator of a critical infrastructure facility as defined by the President of the United States or the Department of Homeland Security may operate an unmanned aircraft system for the purpose of monitoring, operating or maintaining said critical maintenance facility.
19. The Chief of Police is authorized to enforce the safety and security of the public or any individual.

Chesterfield Municipal Code 245.090 

Chesterfield Municipal Code 245.090

For purposes of this Article, the following words and phrases shall have the following meanings:

CITY: City of Chesterfield.

COMMERCIAL PURPOSE: Receiving anything of value resulting from the operation of the UAS.

OPERATE: To pilot, steer, direct, fly or manage a small unmanned aircraft through the air whether from within the aircraft or remotely. The term “operate” includes managing or initiating a computer system that pilots, steers, directs, flies or manages a small unmanned aircraft.

REMOTE UAS PILOT: The person who:

1. Has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight;
2. Has been designated as pilot in command before or during the flight; and
3. Holds the appropriate category, class, and type rating, if appropriate, for the conduct of the flight.
SMALL UAS: A UAS that weighs more than fifty five hundredths (0.55) pounds and less than fifty five (55) pounds. (This includes the actual aircraft and its support systems.)
SPECIAL EVENT: Any public gathering or event held outdoors on City property that requires the issuance of a permit from the City of Chesterfield.
SURVEILLANCE: The gathering, without permission and in a manner that is offensive to a reasonable person, of visual images, physical impressions, sound recordings, data or other information involving the private, personal, business or familial activities of another person, business or entity, or that otherwise intrudes upon the privacy, solitude or seclusion of another person, business or entity regardless of whether a physical trespass onto such other person’s, business’s or other entity’s land, or into the airspace above such other person’s, business’s or other entity’s land, occurs in connection with such surveillance.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT (DRONE): An aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (UAS) (DRONE): An unmanned aircraft and its associated elements, including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft.
VISUAL OBSERVER: A person who is designated by the remote pilot in command to assist the remote pilot in command and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small UAS to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.
[CC 1990 § 6-14; Ord. No. 2957, 6-19-2017]
A. The UAS in flight must remain within visual line of sight of the pilot of the UAS.
B. The pilot(s) of a UAS shall not operate a UAS over persons unprotected by shelter.
C. The remote pilot of an UAS shall not operate the UAS, nor shall a person act as a visual observer for the operation of an UAS, under the influence of alcohol or controlled substance.
D. The remote pilot of an UAS shall ensure the operating environment is safe and shall not operate the UAS in a reckless or negligent manner so as to endanger the life or property of another.
E. It shall be unlawful to operate a UAS directly over the private property of another without the property owner’s consent, if such operation of the UAS:

1. Enters into the immediate reaches of the air space next to private property; or

2. If it interferes substantially with the property owner’s use and enjoyment of his/her property.
F. All UAS shall be limited to daylight-only operations, or civil twilight — thirty (30) minutes before official sunrise to thirty (30) minutes after official sunset, local time.
G. It shall be unlawful to operate a UAS for surveillance within the City limits.
H. It shall be unlawful to operate a UAS over or adjacent to any City-sponsored event or athletic event, bicycle race, City swimming pool, fireworks display parade, or emergency scene such as a fire, motor vehicle accident, or crime scene.
I. An operator of a UAS must have in their possession the UAS registration as issued by the FAA at time of flight and display that registration upon request of an authorized official, such as a Police Officer.
J. A remote UAS pilot must have in their possession an FAA commercial remote pilot certificate and display that certificate upon request by an authorized official such as a Police Officer if flying for commercial purposes.
K. Notwithstanding the provisions set forth herein, nothing in this Article shall be construed so as to prohibit the use of a drone by a Law Enforcement Agency.
L. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, the owner or operator of a critical infrastructure facility as defined by the President of the United States or the Department of Homeland Security may operate an unmanned aircraft system for the purpose of monitoring, operating or maintaining said critical maintenance facility.
[CC 1990 § 6-14; Ord. No. 2957, 6-19-2017]
The Chief of Police is authorized to waive compliance with the restrictions herein, when such action is deemed appropriate and does not unduly jeopardize the safety and security of the public or any individual.

City of Columbia Parks Rules

City of Columbia Parks

Sec. 17-96. – Games.

It shall be unlawful for any person in a park to take part in or abet the playing of any games involving thrown or otherwise propelled objects such as balls, stones, arrows, javelins, or to operate unmanned aircraft systems or model airplanes from a location in a park, except in areas set apart for such forms of recreation or in areas designated by special permit issued by the director. The playing of rough or comparatively dangerous games such as football, baseball, softball, lacrosse and rugby is prohibited except in the fields and courts or areas provided therefor. Roller skating shall be confined to those areas specifically designated for such pastime. Riding motor propelled scooters is prohibited in any city park or trail. This section shall not prohibit the operation of unmanned aircraft systems by a remote pilot in command who is physically located outside of a park when the operation is done in compliance with federal laws, rules and regulations, or a certificate of authority issued by the Federal Aviation Administration.

The following involve excessive risk and shall not be allowed in city parks:

i. Tethered hot air balloon rides.

ii. Climbing walls.

iii. Fireworks, pyrotechnic displays and torpedo/rockets.

iv. Helicopters, airplanes, powered parachutes, hang gliders and other aerial or aviation devices other than hot air balloons and unmanned aircraft systems as defined in section 17-41.

v. Motorized vehicle races or contests and precision driving contests and stunts.

vi. Remote control airplanes.

Crestwood Municipal Code 16-66 

Crestwood Municipal Code 16-66

Definitions. As used in this section and in § 16-65 of this Code, the following terms shall have the meaning set forth herein.

CIVIL TWILIGHT: Thirty minutes before official sunrise to 30 minutes after official sunset, local time.

SENSITIVE INFRASTRUCTURE: Power stations, utility lines, water treatment facilities, correctional facilities, heavily traveled roadways, government facilities, or other public utility facilities.

SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT or DRONE: An unmanned aircraft weighing less than 55 pounds on takeoff, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft.

SMALL UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM: A small unmanned aircraft and its associate elements (including communication links and the components that control the small unmanned aircraft) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the small unmanned aircraft in the national airspace system.

UNMANNED AIRCRAFT: An aircraft operated without the possibility of direction human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

VISUAL OBSERVER: A person who is designated by the remote pilot in command to assist the remote pilot in command and the person manipulating the flight controls of the small unmanned aircraft to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.

Regulations.

1. All operators of unmanned aircraft systems and small unmanned aircraft systems shall adhere to applicable federal and state regulations, rules, and laws regarding their use, and as may be amended from time to time, and implemented thereafter.
2. No person shall operate an unmanned aircraft, other than a small unmanned aircraft, in the City, except as expressly authorized by state or federal law. Unmanned aircraft shall be operated in accordance with all state and federal laws, this section, § 16-65, and any other applicable ordinances of the City.
3. A small unmanned aircraft shall remain within a visual line of sight of the operator of the unmanned aircraft system. Alternately, any small unmanned aircraft shall remain within the visual line of sight of a visual observer, provided that the operator of the small unmanned aircraft system and the visual observer maintain effective communication with one another at all times.
4. An operator of a small unmanned aircraft system shall not intentionally operate a small unmanned aircraft over persons unprotected by shelter or moving vehicles, or within 25 feet from any person, building or vehicle.
5. An operator of a small unmanned aircraft system shall not operate a small unmanned aircraft within five miles of an airport or heliport without first notifying the airport and control tower.
6. Small unmanned aircraft shall not be operated in adverse weather conditions, such as high winds or reduced visibility, that impair the operator’s ability to control the small unmanned aircraft.
7. No person shall operate a small unmanned aircraft system, nor shall a person serve as visual observer, if such person is under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance.
8. No person shall operate a small unmanned aircraft system in a reckless or negligent manner so as to endanger the life or property of another.
9. No person shall, without the consent of the owner of the property, public utility, or appropriate governmental entity, operate a small unmanned aircraft within 25 feet of or over sensitive infrastructure or property containing sensitive infrastructure.
10. No person shall operate a small unmanned aircraft system over private property of another without the owner’s consent, if such small unmanned aircraft enters into the immediate reaches of the air space next to private property and interferes substantially with the property owner’s use and enjoyment of his or her property.
11. No person shall operate a small unmanned aircraft system except during daylight hours. A small unmanned aircraft system may be operated during civil twilight hours if the small unmanned aircraft is equipped with appropriate anti-collision lighting. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a person may, with the consent of the property owner, operate a small unmanned aircraft system between the start of civil twilight and 10:00 p.m. directly above the property if the property is fully lit by one or more outdoor light fixture provided that each light fixture is at a height of at least 60 feet above the surface of the ground.
12. In addition to any requirement imposed by state or federal law, the operator of a small unmanned aircraft system shall report any accident caused by his or her operation of a small unmanned aircraft system to the Crestwood Police Department.
Waiver/application for waiver. The City Administrator is authorized to issue a certificate of waiver to a person to operate a small unmanned aircraft system for a special event or for a defined period of time, not to exceed 48 hours, in a manner that would not be authorized under subsection (b) of this section. The applicant for such waiver shall submit an application for waiver on a form prepared by the City Administrator. The applicant shall set forth in the application that he or she affirms as follows:

1. That the operator will be able to continuously know and determine the position, altitude, and movement of the small unmanned aircraft and ensure that the small unmanned aircraft will remain in the area of intended operation;

2. That the operator will be able to avoid other aircraft, people on the ground, and ground-based structures and obstacles at all time;
3. That the operator will be alerted of any degraded small unmanned aircraft system function; and
4. That all required persons participating in the operation of the small unmanned aircraft system will have relevant knowledge of all aspects of operating unmanned aircraft systems that are not in the visual line of sight of the operator.

The waiver granted herein shall be in writing and set forth specifically which subsections of subsection (b) of this section are waived, and the location and time for which the waiver is effective. The City Administrator shall not waive compliance with any FAA regulation or any state or federal law. The City Administrator shall not waive compliance with Subsections (b)(1), (2), (6), (7), (8), or (12) of this section.

Ellisville Municipal Code 245.010

Ellisville Municipal Code 245.010

Definitions. For purposes of this Section, the following words and phrases shall have the following meanings:

UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
A high-powered, aerial vehicle that:
1. Does not carry a human operator and is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft;
2. Uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift;
3. Can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely; and
4. Can be expendable or recoverable.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (UAS)
An unmanned aircraft, and associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft), that is required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system. To be part of a UAS, the unmanned aircraft must be:
1. Capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere;
2. Flown within the visual line of sight of the person operating the aircraft; and
3. Flown for hobby or recreational purposes.
VISUAL OBSERVER
A person who is designated by the operator of an Unmanned Aircraft System to assist the operator to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.
All operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall adhere to applicable Federal and State regulations, rules, and laws regarding their use, and as may be amended from time to time, and implemented thereafter.
Unmanned Aircraft Systems must remain below any surrounding obstacles within the airspace, when possible.
The Unmanned Aircraft System must remain within visual line of sight of the operator of the Unmanned Aircraft System. Alternatively, the Unmanned Aircraft must remain within the visual line of sight of a Visual Observer, provided that the operator of the Unmanned Aircraft System and the Visual Observer maintain effective communication with each other at all times.
Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall not intentionally operate Unmanned Aircraft Systems over persons unprotected by shelter or moving vehicles, or within twenty-five (25) feet from any person, building, or vehicle.
Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall not operate an Unmanned Aircraft System within five (5) miles of an airport or heliport without first notifying the airport and control tower.
Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall not operate an Unmanned Aircraft System in adverse weather conditions, such as in high winds or reduced visibility.
Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall not operate an Unmanned Aircraft System, nor shall a visual observer observe the operation of an Unmanned Aircraft System, under the influence of alcohol or controlled substances.
Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall ensure the operating environment is safe and shall not operate Unmanned Aircraft Systems in a reckless or negligent manner so as to endanger the life or property of another.
Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall not operate an Unmanned Aircraft System within twenty-five (25) feet of or over sensitive infrastructure or property, such as power stations, utility lines, water treatment facilities, correctional facilities, heavily traveled roadways, government facilities, or other public utility facilities unless the operator obtains the consent of the owner of the property, public utility, or appropriate governmental entity.
It shall be unlawful to knowingly operate an Unmanned Aircraft System directly over the private property of another without the property owner’s consent, if such operation of the Unmanned Aircraft System: (a) enters into the immediate reaches of the air space next to private property, and (b) if it interferes substantially with the property owner’s use and enjoyment of his/her property.
All Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall be limited to daylight-only operations, or civil twilight, (thirty (30) minutes before official sunrise to thirty (30) minutes after official sunset, local time), with appropriate anti-collision lighting. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a person may, with the consent of the property owner, operate an Unmanned Aircraft System between civil twilight and 10:00 p.m. directly above the areas of property that are fully lit by one (1) or more outdoor light fixtures provided that each light fixture is at a height no less than sixty (60) feet above the surface of the ground and conforms to all applicable lighting regulations.
Except as may be otherwise expressly permitted by Federal or State law, it shall be unlawful to operate any Unmanned Aircraft Systems weighing in excess of fifty-five (55) pounds (twenty-five (25) kilograms) in the City.

Eureka Municipal Code 15-72 

Eureka Municipal Code 15-72

For purposes of this Article, the following words and phrases shall have the following meanings:

COMMERCIAL PURPOSE: Receiving anything of value resulting from the operation of the Unmanned Aircraft System.

OPERATE: To pilot, steer, direct, fly or manage a small unmanned aircraft through the air. The term “operate” includes managing or initiating a computer system that pilots, steers, directs, flies or manages an unmanned aircraft.

REMOTE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM PILOT: The person who:

a. Has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight;
b. Has been designated as pilot in command before or during the flight; and
c. Holds the appropriate category, class, and type rating, if appropriate, for the conduct of the flight.
SURVEILLANCE: The gathering, without permission and in a manner that is offensive to a reasonable person, of visual images, physical impressions, sound recordings, data or other information involving the private, personal, business or familial activities of another person, business or entity, or that otherwise intrudes upon the privacy, solitude or seclusion of another person, business or entity regardless of whether a physical trespass onto the land of such person, business or other entity, or into the airspace above the land of such other person, business or other entity in connection with such surveillance.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT (also known as “DRONE”): An aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft. An aerial vehicle that:

a. Does not carry a human operator and is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft;
b. Uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift;
c. Can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely; and
d. Can be expendable or recoverable.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM: An unmanned aircraft, and associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft), that is required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system. To be part of a Unmanned Aircraft System, the unmanned aircraft must be:
a. Capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere;
b. Flown within the visual line of sight of the person operating the aircraft or visual observer; and
c. Flown for hobby, recreational or commercial purposes.
VISUAL OBSERVER: A person who is designated by the operator of an Unmanned Aircraft System to assist the operator to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.
[Ord. No. 2435, 12-19-2017]
a. Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall adhere to applicable Federal and State regulations, rules, and laws regarding their use, as may be amended from time to time, and implemented thereafter.
b. Unmanned Aircraft Systems must remain below any surrounding obstacles within the airspace, when possible.
c. The Unmanned Aircraft System must remain within visual line of sight of the operator of such. Alternatively, the unmanned aircraft must remain within the visual line of sight of a visual observer, provided that the operator of the Unmanned Aircraft System and the visual observer maintain effective communication with each other at all times.
d. Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall not intentionally operate such over persons unprotected by shelter or moving vehicles, or within twenty-five (25) feet from any person, building, or vehicle.
e. Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall not operate such in adverse weather conditions, such as in high winds or reduced visibility.
f. Operators or visual observers of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall not be under the influence of alcohol or controlled substances when such are in operation.
g. Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall ensure the operating environment is safe and shall not operate such in a reckless or negligent manner so as to endanger the life or property of another.
h. Operators of Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall not, without the consent of the owner of the property, public utility, or appropriate governmental entity operate such within one hundred (100) feet of or over sensitive infrastructure or property, such as power stations, utility lines, water treatment facilities, correctional facilities, heavily traveled roadways, government facilities or other public utility facilities.
i. It shall be unlawful to knowingly operate an Unmanned Aircraft System directly over the private property of another without the property owner’s consent, if the operation of such: (a) enters into the immediate reaches of the air space next to private property, and (b) if it interferes substantially with the property owner’s use and enjoyment of their property.
j. All Unmanned Aircraft Systems shall be limited to daylight only operations.
k. Except as may be otherwise expressly permitted by Federal or State law, it shall be unlawful to operate any Unmanned Aircraft Systems weighing in excess of fifty-five (55) pounds in the City.
l. It shall be unlawful to operate an Unmanned Aircraft System for surveillance within the City limits.
m. It shall be unlawful to operate an Unmanned Aircraft System over or adjacent to any City sponsored event or athletic event, bicycle race, City swimming pool, fireworks display, parade or emergency scene such as a fire, motor vehicle accident or crime scene.
n. An operator of an Unmanned Aircraft System must have in their possession the Unmanned Aircraft System registration as issued by the FAA at time of flight and display that registration upon request of an authorized official, such as a Police Officer.
o. A remote Unmanned Aircraft System pilot must have in their possession an FAA Commercial Remote Pilot Certificate and display that certificate upon request by an authorized official such as a Police Officer if flying for commercial purposes.
p. Notwithstanding the provisions set forth herein, nothing in this Article shall be construed so as to prohibit the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems by a law enforcement agency, fire protection district or the City of Eureka.
q. Notwithstanding the provisions set forth herein, nothing in this Article shall be construed so as to prohibit the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems by utility companies in conjunction with survey, inspection, maintenance or repair activities. The utility company shall notify the City a minimum of forty-eight (48) hours in advance of any survey, inspection or maintenance activity, and as soon as is practical in the case of emergency repairs.
[Ord. No. 2444, 3-20-2018]

Forest Park Drone Rules

Forest Park Drone Rules

If you would like to fly a drone in Forest Park, you will need to submit an application for a City of St. Louis Board of Public Service Permit to BPS Secretary Cherise Jones, Room 305, City Hall. With your application, you will need to submit a copy of your pilot’s license, drone specs and a certificate of insurance for $1,000,000. Please contact the Department of Parks, Recreation and Forestry at 314.289.5300 with additional questions.

Foristell Municipal Code 255.010 – 255.030

Foristell Municipal Code 255.010 – 255.030

Definitions. For purposes of this Section, the following words and phrases shall have the following meanings:

UNMANNED AIRCRAFT
A high-powered, aerial vehicle that:
1. Does not carry a human operator and is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft;
2. Uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift;
3. Can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely; and
4. Can be expendable or recoverable.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (UAS)
An unmanned aircraft, and associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft), that is required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system. To be part of a UAS, the unmanned aircraft must be:
1. Capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere; and
2. Flown within the visual line of sight of the person operating the aircraft; and
3. Flown for hobby or recreational purposes.
VISUAL OBSERVER
A person who is designated by the operator of an unmanned aircraft system to assist the operator to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.
All operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall adhere to applicable Federal and State regulations, rules, and laws regarding their use, and as may be amended from time to time, and implemented thereafter.
Unmanned aircraft systems must remain below any surrounding obstacles within the airspace, when possible.
The unmanned aircraft system must remain within visual line of sight of the operator of the unmanned aircraft system. Alternatively, the unmanned aircraft must remain within the visual line of sight of a visual observer, provided that the operator of the unmanned aircraft system and the visual observer maintain effective communication with each other at all times.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not intentionally operate unmanned aircraft systems over persons unprotected by shelter or moving vehicles, or within twenty-five (25) feet from any person, building, or vehicle.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not operate an unmanned aircraft system within five (5) miles of an airport or heliport without first notifying the airport and control tower.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not operate an unmanned aircraft system in adverse weather conditions, such as in high winds or reduced visibility.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not operate an unmanned aircraft system, nor shall a visual observer observe the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, under the influence of alcohol or controlled substances.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall ensure the operating environment is safe and shall not operate unmanned aircraft systems in a reckless or negligent manner so as to endanger the life or property of another.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not without the consent of the owner of the property, public utility, or appropriate governmental entity operate an unmanned aircraft system within twenty-five (25) feet of or over sensitive infrastructure or property, such as power stations, utility lines, water treatment facilities, correctional facilities, heavily traveled roadways, government facilities, or other public utility facilities.
It shall be unlawful to knowingly operate an unmanned aircraft system directly over the private property of another without the property owner’s consent, if such operation of the unmanned aircraft system:
1. Enters into the immediate reaches of the air space next to private property; and
2. If it interferes substantially with the property owner’s use and enjoyment of his/her property.
All unmanned aircraft systems shall be limited to daylight-only operations, or civil twilight (thirty (30) minutes before official sunrise to thirty (30) minutes after official sunset, local time), with appropriate anti-collision lighting. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a person may, with the consent of the property owner, operate an unmanned aircraft system between civil twilight and 10:00 P.M. directly above the areas of property that are fully lit by one (1) or more outdoor light fixtures, provided that each light fixture is at a height no less than sixty (60) feet above the surface of the ground and conforms to the lighting standards set by the City of Foristell.
Except as may be otherwise expressly permitted by Federal or state law, it shall be unlawful to operate any unmanned aircraft systems weighing in excess of fifty-five (55) pounds (twenty-five (25) kilograms) in the City.
[Ord. No. 830 § VII, 2-21-2017]
Any person firm, partnership, LLC or corporation found to be in violation of any provision of this Chapter shall be subject to a fine of up to five hundred dollars ($500.00) subject to limitations that may be imposed by State Statute or Supreme Court guidelines; and each day of such violation shall constitute a separate offense.

Jackson County Parks Rules

Jackson County Parks

5082. Liability Insurance Required. No person shall operate a radio controlled aircraft or boat on or above park land or waterways unless he has liability insurance of at least the minimum limits offered by the Academy of Model Aeronautics to its members, with regard to aircraft, or the minimum limits offered by the American Power Boat Association to its members, with regard to boats. Any person holding a current Academy of Model Aeronautics membership card will be presumed to have met the above requirement with regard to aircraft. Any person holding a current American Power Boat Association membership card will be presumed to have met the above requirement with regard to boats. (Ord. 1447, Eff. 07/11/86; Ord. 2274, Eff. 02/17/94)

5083. Permit. It shall be unlawful for any person to operate any type of radio controlled equipment for the purpose of operating miniature or model airplanes, ground running vehicles, water borne boats or vehicles, rockets or any other similar device within the physical boundary of any park that is under the jurisdiction of Jackson County, Missouri, without first purchasing the proper operating permit issued by Jackson County. (Ord. 1447, Eff. 07/11/86)

5084. Radio-Controlled Flying Field Sound Level. No person shall operate any radio-controlled flying device with a sound level in excess of ninety-eight (98) decibels on a weighted scale when measured from a distance of fifty (50) or more feet. (Ord. 2194, Eff. 4/20/93)

Randolph County Unmanned Aircraft Ordinance

Randolph County Unmanned Aircraft Ordinance

Effective date:  September 18, 2019

WHEREAS, advances in Unmanned Aircraft technology have empowered individuals to document, the world around them, in ways that oftentimes replace more hazardous operations; and

WHEREAS, Randolph County supports innovation and wants to be a home to innovative companies and ideas; and

WHERAS, after studying various alternatives for regulation of safety, privacy, nuisance, trespass, related police power, and zoning issues raised by Unmanned Aircraft, and taking account the approaches adopted by government bodies across the nation, which include criminalizing or prohibiting the use of unmanned aircraft; and

WHEREAS, Randolph County recognizes legitimate concerns raised by unmanned aircraft (drones) regarding safety, privacy, nuisance, and trespass, can be addressed largely through existing laws; and

WHERAS, the difficulty of identifying drone’s operators raises concerns regarding enforcement of existing laws and tying unmanned aircraft operators to their devices; and

WHEREAS; the county has exclusive authority over land use and zoning decisions within the county, and multiple court precedents protect the ability of counties to regulate such activities that take place upon County land, including take-off and landing aircraft; and

WHEREAS, Unmanned Aircraft are part of an unmanned aircraft system that is operated from land; and

WHEREAS, the FAA has declared that State and Local Governments have historically been able to regulate the take-offs and landings of aircraft within their boundaries; and

WHEREAS, the FAA has declared that, depending on the specific nature of the small Unmanned Aircraft operation, the remote pilot in command may need to comply with State and Local trespassing rules; and

WHEREAS the FAA has declared that “Laws traditionally related to state and local police power including land use, zoning, privacy, trespass, and law enforcement operations – generally are not subject to Federal Regulation”; and

WHEREAS, the FAA has declared that the operation of unmanned Aircraft near or over the perimeter or interior of certain locations may violate State or Local trespassing laws; and

WHEREAS, the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), BEST practices for UAV transparency and accountability recommend drone operators should not operate Unmanned Aircraft over or within private property without consent of the property owner or without appropriate legal authority; and

WHEREAS, public safety professionals have expressed significant concerns regarding the risks posed by unmanned aircraft to public safety, and the difficulty of identifying drone operators who interfere with public safety operations; and

WHEREAS, advances in technology now allow a means to balance innovation and address all of the above statutes, land use, safety, nuisance, privacy, and trespass concerns;

NOW THEREFORE BE IT ORDAINED by the Randolph County Commission;

That the Randolph County Commission acting under the authority of Section 304.013 RSMO does adopt and order implementation of this Ordinance; and that this ordinance does ordain, adopt, and implement the following:

Section 1 – Purpose

Randolph County encourages the safe and responsible use of Unmanned Aircraft.  This ordinance is designed to empower innovation while protecting and promoting the health, safety, and welfare of its citizens.

Section 2 – Definition.

An “Unmanned Aircraft” shall mean an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.  This definition includes devices commonly referred to as drones, remote controlled aircraft, and model aircraft.

Section 3 – Development of Rules.

In addition to the specific requirements set forth below, the county directs and delegates the authority to development rules for the operation of Unmanned Aircraft within the boundaries of the county, consistent with this ordinance,  The county must publish such rules on the county website, or through  other equivalent internet accessible systems, and must periodically report to the commission at least once per year on the implementation of such rules, including information regarding enforcement actions and the costs associated with implementing and enforcing such rules.  The rules developed by the County Commission must be consistent with the following:

  1. The County Commission may adopt reasonable restrictions on the time, place, and manner in which a person may land, launch, or otherwise operate an unmanned Aircraft so as to not interfere with the health, safety, and welfare of individuals within the county.  Such restrictions may not place an undue burden on recreational or commercial operations of unmanned Aircraft.  To ensure that restrictions are easily accessible by Unmanned Aircraft operators, such restrictions should be published on the counties website or through other equivalent internet accessible systems.
  2. The County Commission may require certain conditions be fulfilled prior to the take-off landing, or operation of an Unmanned Aircraft from terrain designated lands within boundaries of the county.

Section 4. – Notice of intended operation.

  1. To ensure operations are accountable, no Unmanned aircraft weighing more that 250 grams shall take-off from, land upon, or be operated from any land within the boundaries of the county without the operator first notifying the County Clerk electronically of the intended operation through an internet accessible system to be provided by the County.  The electronically filed notice may contain any or all of the following information as required by this ordinance.

A1.  The name, address, and telephone number of the person or corporation filing the notice and the telephone number at which the operator can be contacted during the operations.

A2.  The take-off and landing location of the operation;

A3.   The expected start and end time of the operation (if the operator intends to        take-off and land multiple times in the same location, one notice for multiple operations may suffice, so long as the duration of the combined operations does not exceed 4 hours, after which a new notice must be filed);

A4.  The purpose of the operation

A5.  A statement affirming that the operator has consulted relevant County rules and  intends to abide by them.

A6.  Such other information as the County Commission shall deem reasonably necessary to inform the county whether the take-off, landing, or operation, will endanger the health, safety, or welfare of persons located within the County and if such use is inconsistent with this ordinance.

  1. Once notice has been electronically filed consistent with Section 4, the operation may commence without any need for action or approval by the county, so long as such operation is consistent with County rules as outlined in Section 3.
  2. Notice pursuant to Section 4 above shall not apply to an operation where the take-off, landing, and operation takes place from an operator’s own private property. Such operation may still be subject to nuisance, privacy, and trespass law violations.

D   The County Commission may designate areas where notice pursuant to this section 4 above is not required.  Examples of such areas may include locations where operations may be encouraged, such as certain parks and/or model aircraft fields.

E   The County will provide a paper-based procedure as an alternative to the electron system specified in this section 4, such system will collect information identical to that specified in this section 4 (A) (1-6).

Section 5 – No Reckless Operation
No Person may operate an Unmanned Aircraft in a reckless manner so as to create (a) a substantial risk of serious physical injury to another or (b) a substantial risk of damage to the property of another.

Section 6 – Penalties.
A person who operates an Unmanned Aircraft without first filing notice, may be punished by a fine, not to exceed $100,

A person found guilty of a reckless operation or operation out of compliance with this ordinance (except for operation without first filing notice), including but not limited to operation an Unmanned Aircraft in violation of any rules developed by the County Commission, may be punished by a fine not to exceed $500.

A person found guilty of operating an Unmanned aircraft over private property flying below 100 feet without the expressed consent of the property owner may be punished by a fine not to exceed $100 for the first offense.  Multiple offense may result in a fine not to exceed $500.

Any person found guilty of operating an Unmanned aircraft hovering over private property shall not hover above any buildings without the express consent of the property owner, punishable by a fine not to exceed $500.
Owners of property having an unmanned aircraft flying over or hovering above their property will be held harmless to any damages to the Unmanned Aircraft.

Any person having an unmanned aircraft incapable of flying that lands or crashes on private property may not go onto the private property without the express consent of the owner.  Contact the Randolph County Sheriff’s office to have the unmanned aircraft retrieved in whole or in part.  Person’s going onto private property to retrieve an unmanned aircraft without consent of the owner or with the assistance of the Sheriff’s office will be punishable by a fine not to exceed $100.  Multiple offenses not to exceed a fine of $500.

Section 7 – Exceptions.

This ordinance does not apply to an unmanned Aircraft that is operated by a government or any public agency for government related to purposes in compliance with all federal laws and regulations and operated in compliance with County policies.

This ordinance does not apply to an unmanned Aircraft flying an easement or property for which the owner of the aircraft is engaged in professional surveillance related to the business of the owner related to purposes in compliance with all federal laws and regulations and operated in compliance with County policies.

  1. RSMO 303 Penalties
  2. Any person, firm, corporation or individual violating any of the provisions of RSMO303, shall be subject to fine and imprisonment as set for RSMO Section 303.00 (General insurance coverage and Penalty Section) of the Revised Statutes of the State of Missouri.
  3. All ordinances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are, to the extent of such conflict hereby repealed.
  4. If any clause, word, paragraph, section or other part or portion of this ordinance is held to be invalid, illegal, unlawful, or unconstitutional for Any reason, the Randolph County Commission hereby declares it would nevertheless have enacted the remaining portions thereof; and such remaining portions shall remain in full force and effect.
  5. This ordinance shall be in full force and effect from and after the date of September 18, 2019 and the Randolph County Commission directs the Randolph County Clerk to publish this ordinance.

The County Commission has the right to refuse any application for a Unmanned Aircraft special use permit if the commission feels that such refusal is in the best interest of the citizens of Randolph County.

That this ordinance is adopted on this 19th day of September 2019, by action of the Randolph County Commission, to become effective as of September 19, 2019

Adopted by recorded vote as follows:

THE RANDOLPH COUNTY COMMISSION

St. Charles Municipal Code 236.010

St. Charles Municipal Code 236.010

Definitions. For purposes of this Section, the following words and phrases shall have the following meanings:

UNMANNED AIRCRAFT: (Also known as a “drone”) A high-powered, aerial vehicle that:

1. Does not carry a human operator and is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft;
2. Uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift;
3. Can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely; and
4. Can be expendable or recoverable.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM: An unmanned aircraft, and associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft), that is required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system. To be part of an unmanned aircraft system, the unmanned aircraft must be:

1. Capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere;
2. Flown within the visual line of sight of the person operating the aircraft; and
3. Flown for hobby or recreational purposes.
VISUAL OBSERVER: A person who is designated by the operator of an unmanned aircraft system to assist the operator to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.
Unmanned Aircraft System Operator Requirements. An operator of an unmanned aircraft system shall:

1. Adhere to applicable federal and State laws and regulations regarding their use, and as may be amended from time to time, and implemented thereafter;

2. Remain below any surrounding obstacles within the airspace, when possible;
3. Remain within visual line of sight of the operator of the unmanned aircraft system; or, alternatively, the unmanned aircraft shall remain within the visual line of sight of a visual observer, provided that the operator of the unmanned aircraft system and the visual observer maintain effective communication with each other at all times;
4. Not intentionally operate an unmanned aircraft system over persons unprotected by shelter or moving vehicles, or within twenty-five (25) feet of any person, building, or vehicle;
5. Not operate an unmanned aircraft system within five (5) miles of an airport or heliport without first notifying the airport and control tower;
6. Not operate an unmanned aircraft system in adverse weather conditions, such as in high winds or reduced visibility;
7. Not operate an unmanned aircraft system, nor shall a visual observer observe the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, under the influence of alcohol or controlled substances;
8. Ensure the operating environment is safe and shall not operate an unmanned aircraft system in a reckless or negligent manner so as to endanger the life or property of another;
9. Not without the consent of the owner of the property, public utility, or appropriate governmental entity operate an unmanned aircraft system within twenty-five (25) feet of or over sensitive infrastructure or property, such as power stations, utility lines, water treatment facilities, correctional facilities, heavily traveled roadways, government facilities, or other public utility facilities; and
10. Limit operation of an unmanned aircraft system to daylight-only operations, or civil twilight [thirty (30) minutes before official sunrise to thirty (30) minutes after official sunset, local time], with appropriate anticollision lighting; provided, notwithstanding the foregoing, a person may, with the consent of the property owner, operate an unmanned aircraft system between civil twilight and 10:00 P.M. directly above the areas of property that are fully lit by one (1) or more outdoor light fixtures, provided that each light fixture is at a height no less than sixty (60) feet above the surface of the ground.
It shall be unlawful for any person to:
1. Knowingly operate an unmanned aircraft system directly over the private property of another without the property owner’s consent, if such operation of the unmanned aircraft system:
a. Enters into the air space of the private property; and
b. It interferes substantially with the property owner’s use and enjoyment of his/her property; or
2. Operate an unmanned aircraft system weighing in excess of fifty-five (55) pounds [twenty-five (25) kilograms] except as may be otherwise expressly permitted by Federal or State law.

St. Louis Municipal Code 15.190

St. Louis Municipal Code 15.190

Regulating the Commercial Use of Private Drones

An ordinance adding to Chapter 15 of the City of St. Louis Revised Code of Ordinances, a new subsection, Chapter 15.190, to regulate the commercial use of drones and impose community-based safety regulations and restrictions on the operation of drones and other UAs that do not preempt federal aviation rules or state law; including a severability clause and emergency clause.

 

St. Peters Municipal Code 245.010 

St. Peters Municipal Code 245.010

Definitions. For purposes of this chapter, the following words and phrases shall have the following meanings:

CITY ADMINISTRATOR: The City Administrator of the City or his or her designee.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT: An aerial vehicle that:

1. Does not carry a human operator and is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft;
2. Uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift;
3. Can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely; and
4. Can be expendable or recoverable.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (UAS): An unmanned aircraft and associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft) that are required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system. To be part of a UAS, the unmanned aircraft must be:

1. Capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere;
2. Flown within the visual line of sight of the person operating the aircraft; and
3. Flown for hobby or recreational purposes.
VISUAL OBSERVER: A person who is designated by the operator of an unmanned aircraft system to assist the operator to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.
All operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall adhere to applicable federal and State regulations, rules, and laws regarding their use, and as may be amended from time to time, and implemented thereafter.
The unmanned aircraft system must remain within visual line of sight of the operator of the unmanned aircraft system. Alternatively, the unmanned aircraft must remain within the visual line of sight of a visual observer, provided that the operator of the unmanned aircraft system and the visual observer maintain effective communication with each other at all times.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not intentionally operate unmanned aircraft systems over persons unprotected by shelter or moving vehicles, or within twenty-five (25) feet of any person, building, or vehicle.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not operate an unmanned aircraft system in adverse weather conditions, such as in high winds or reduced visibility.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not operate an unmanned aircraft system, nor shall a visual observer observe the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, under the influence of alcohol or controlled substances.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall ensure the operating environment is safe and shall not operate unmanned aircraft systems in a reckless or negligent manner so as to endanger the life or property of another or constitute an unreasonable interference with enjoyment of life, quiet, comfort, or outdoor recreation of an individual or individuals of ordinary sensitivity or habits.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not without the consent of the owner of the property, public utility, or appropriate governmental entity operate an unmanned aircraft system within twenty-five (25) feet of or over sensitive infrastructure or property, such as power stations, utility lines, water treatment facilities, correctional facilities, streets or highways with a speed limit of 35 miles per hour or more, government facilities, or other public utility facilities.
It shall be unlawful to knowingly operate an unmanned aircraft system directly over the private property of another without the property owner’s consent, if such operation of the unmanned aircraft system:
1. Enters into the immediate reaches of the air space next to private property; and
2. If it interferes substantially with the property owner’s use and enjoyment of his/her property.
All unmanned aircraft systems shall be limited to daylight-only operations, or civil twilight (30 minutes before official sunrise to 30 minutes after official sunset, local time), with anti-collision lighting visible from a distance of three (3) statute miles.
Except as may be otherwise expressly permitted by federal or state law, it shall be unlawful to operate any unmanned aircraft systems weighing in excess of fifty-five pounds (25 kilograms) in the City.
The City Administrator is hereby authorized to promulgate policies and procedures for the operation of unmanned aircraft systems upon and over property owned or controlled by the City, consistent with this Chapter. Such policies and procedures shall provide for reasonable restrictions on the time, place, and manner in which a person may land, launch, or otherwise operate an unmanned aircraft system so as not to interfere with the health, safety, and welfare of City residents. Such restrictions may not place an undue burden on recreational or commercial operation of unmanned aircraft systems. Such policies and procedures may require certain conditions be fulfilled prior to the take-off, landing, or operation of an unmanned aircraft system from certain designated properties owned or controlled by the City.
[Ord. No. 6737 §  1, 4-27-2017]
The City Administrator is hereby authorized to issue a certificate of waiver permitting a temporary deviation from the regulations of Subsections (C)(D) and (J) of Section 245.010 under the terms and conditions as set forth by the City Administrator in the certificate of waiver and as provided for herein:
1. An applicant requesting a certificate of waiver permitting a deviation from Section 245.010(C) of this Chapter must set forth in the application a method for ensuring each of the following:
a. That the operator will be able to continuously know and determine the position, altitude, and movement of the unmanned aircraft systems and ensure the unmanned aircraft systems remains in the area of intended operation;
b. That the operator will be able to avoid other aircraft, people on the ground, and ground-based structures and obstacles at all times;
c. That the operator will be alerted of any degraded unmanned aircraft systems function; and
d. That all required persons participating in the operation of the unmanned aircraft systems will have relevant knowledge of all aspects of operating unmanned aircraft systems that are not in the visual line of sight of the operator.
2. An applicant requesting a certificate of waiver permitting a deviation from Section 245.010(D) of this Chapter must set forth in the application a method for ensuring each of the following:
a. That any malfunction of the unmanned aircraft systems will not cause injuries to non-participating persons on the ground;
b. That risk to non-participants will be mitigated by the applicant through an operational risk assessment, testing, and data, all of which address design features, operational limitations, or a combination thereof specific to the operation;
c. That the applicant will address the risk from exposure to rotating parts and sharp edges which could injure a non-participating person; and
d. That the operator has adequate knowledge, experience, and ability to safely operate an unmanned aircraft over non-participating persons, including recent flight experience within the last thirty (30) days.
3. An applicant requesting a certificate of waiver permitting a deviation from 245.010 (J) must set forth in the application a method for ensuring each of the following:
a. That the operator will be able to maintain visual line of sight during darkness;
b. That the operator will be able to see and avoid other aircraft, people on the ground, and ground-based structures and obstacles during the darkness;
c. That the operator will be able to continuously know and determine the position, altitude, attitude, and movement of his or her unmanned aircraft systems; and
d. That all required persons participating in the unmanned aircraft systems operation will have knowledge to recognize and overcome visual illusions caused by darkness, and understand physiological conditions which may degrade night vision.
An application for a certificate of waiver must be submitted on forms provided by the City Administrator, and contain, at a minimum, the following:
1. The name, age, telephone number and address of the operator of the unmanned aircraft system;
2. The name, age, telephone number and address of the visual observer or observers, if applicable;
3. A complete description of the proposed operation of the unmanned aircraft system, including the location, dates and times of operation of the unmanned aircraft system;
4. A justification that the operation of the unmanned aircraft system can safely be conducted under the terms of a certificate of waiver; and
5. Such other information as may be required by the City Administrator.
The City Administrator may prescribe such additional terms, conditions and limitations for any certificate of waiver issued by the City Administrator that the City Administrator considers necessary to protect the health, safety and welfare of the residents of the City.
A person who receives a certificate of waiver issued under this section:
1. May deviate from the regulations of this Chapter to the extent specified in the certificate of waiver; and
2. Must comply with any terms, conditions or limitations that are specified in the certificate of waiver.

 

Wildwood Municipal Code 236.010 

Wildwood Municipal Code 236.010

Definitions. For purposes of this Section, the following words and phrases shall have the following meanings:

UNMANNED AIRCRAFT: A high-powered, aerial vehicle that:
1. Does not carry a human operator and is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft;
2. Uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift;
3. Can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely; and
4. Can be expendable or recoverable.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS (UAS): An unmanned aircraft, and associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft), that is required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system. To be part of a UAS, the unmanned aircraft must be:

1. Capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere;
2. Flown within the visual line of sight of the person operating the aircraft; and
3. Flown for hobby or recreational purposes.
VISUAL OBSERVER: A person who is designated by the operator of an unmanned aircraft system to assist the operator to see and avoid other air traffic or objects aloft or on the ground.
All operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall adhere to applicable Federal and State regulations, rules, and laws regarding their use, and as may be amended from time to time, and implemented thereafter.
Unmanned aircraft systems must remain below any surrounding obstacles within the airspace, when possible.
The unmanned aircraft system must remain within visual line of sight of the operator of the unmanned aircraft system. Alternatively, the unmanned aircraft must remain within the visual line of sight of a visual observer, provided that the operator of the unmanned aircraft system and the visual observer maintain effective communication with each other at all times.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not intentionally operate unmanned aircraft systems over persons unprotected by shelter or moving vehicles, or within twenty-five (25) feet from any person, building, or vehicle.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not operate an unmanned aircraft system within five (5) miles of an airport or heliport without first notifying the airport and control tower.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not operate an unmanned aircraft system in adverse weather conditions, such as in high winds or reduced visibility.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not operate an unmanned aircraft system, nor shall a visual observer observe the operation of an unmanned aircraft system, under the influence of alcohol or controlled substances.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall ensure the operating environment is safe and shall not operate unmanned aircraft systems in a reckless or negligent manner so as to endanger the life or property of another.
Operators of unmanned aircraft systems shall not without the consent of the owner of the property, public utility, or appropriate governmental entity operate an unmanned aircraft system within twenty-five (25) feet of or over sensitive infrastructure or property, such as power stations, utility lines, water treatment facilities, correctional facilities, heavily traveled roadways, government facilities, or other public utility facilities.
It shall be unlawful to knowingly operate an unmanned aircraft system directly over the private property of another without the property owner’s consent, if such operation of the unmanned aircraft system:
1. Enters into the immediate reaches of the air space next to private property; and
2. Interferes substantially with the property owner’s use and enjoyment of his/her property.
All unmanned aircraft systems shall be limited to daylight-only operations, or civil twilight [thirty (30) minutes before official sunrise to thirty (30) minutes after official sunset, local time], with appropriate anti-collision lighting. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a person may, with the consent of the property owner, operate an unmanned aircraft system between civil twilight and 10:00 P.M. directly above the areas of property – that are fully lit by one or more outdoor light fixture provided that each light fixture is at a height no less than sixty (60) feet above the surface of the ground and conforms to the lighting standards set forth by City Code Chapter 415.

Except as may be otherwise expressly permitted by Federal or State law, it shall be unlawful to operate any unmanned aircraft systems weighing in excess of fifty-five (55) pounds (25 kilograms) in the City.

University Drone Policies

Columbia College

Fontbonne University

Maryville University

Missouri University Science and Technology (Missouri S&T)

Missouri Western University

South East Missouri State (SEMO)

St. Charles Community College

University of Central Missouri

University of Missouri UAS Policy – Unmanned Aircraft Systems Request Form/Instructions

Washington University of St Louis

Note: This list is just a sample… many more could be added.

Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)

 

Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of filming fireworks at the Gateway Arch in St. Louis, pictured above.

They need you to mention any state laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in, and whether or not you need an airspace authorization, with or without LAANC capability.

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do the state drone laws implicate the First Amendment? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 3

Do the state drone laws implicate the Fourth Amendment? Or involve law enforcement officers obtaining warrants? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 4

Do the state drone laws contain a preemption clause? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Does the state have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 6

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.

 

 

 

License

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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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