116 Bermuda (UK)

Red, with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Bermudian coat of arms (a white shield with a red lion standing on a green grassy field holding a scrolled shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered on the outer half of the flag. It was the shipwreck of the vessel, filled with English colonists originally bound for Virginia, that led to the settling of Bermuda.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

Bermuda’s “Unfinished Church” – what would have been St. George Church – fell victim to three events that precluded its use. The Gothic 650-seat church, designed by William Hay, began construction in 1874 as a replacement for the storm-damaged St. Peter’s church. During the construction the congregation split, which halted work on the church. Funds were later diverted to build a new cathedral in Hamilton after the old one burned down. Private donations finished the church in 1899, but the rejoined congregation returned to old St. Peter’s. In 1926, a storm damaged the church leaving it in its present condition. The “Unfinished Church” is maintained by the Bermuda National Trust.

Photos courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Last updated on April 18, 2024


According to Britannica, Bermuda is an internally self-governing British overseas territory with a parliamentary government. Under its 1968 constitution, the British monarch, represented by the governor, is the head of state. The governor maintains control over external affairs, defense, internal security, and the police but acts on the advice of the cabinet, led by the premier, who is head of government and of the majority party in the legislature. The bicameral legislature is composed of the House of Assembly, with 36 members elected to terms of up to five years, and the Senate, with 11 members appointed by the governor (5 on the advice of the premier, 3 on the advice of the leader of the opposition, and 3 at the governor’s discretion). The Supreme Court heads the judicial system. The system of local government comprises nine parishes: St. George’s, Hamilton, Smith’s, Devonshire, Pembroke, Paget, Warwick, Southampton, and Sandys.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

The Bermuda Civil Aviation Authority (BCAA) is responsible for the regulation and safety oversight of aviation in Bermuda and all aircraft on the Bermuda Aircraft Registry. The BCAA was formed 1st October 2016 having previously operated as the Bermuda Department of Civil Aviation, which was established in 1931. Bermuda is a United Kingdom Overseas Territory and though it is regulated by the UK Department for Transport, the safety oversight system is separate from that of the UK. The regulatory requirements are established in the Air Navigation (Overseas Territories) Order (AN(OT)O). Overseas Territory Aviation Requirements (OTARs) provide an acceptable means of compliance with the AN(OT)O. The regulations/requirements are fully compliant with the standards and recommended practices of the ICAO. Bermuda’s Aircraft Registry is extensive and ranks 10th in size when compared to the 193 signatory States to the Convention on International Civil Aviation (also referred to as the Chicago Convention). The current Aircraft Registry includes a mix of both private aircraft and commercial aircraft operated on a Bermuda Air Operator’s Certificate (AOC)or under Article 83 bis Agreements of the Convention on International Civil Aviation.


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ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Bermuda AIP

Bermuda Airspace

Drone Regulations

Drone Operations

Users of Small Unmanned Aircraft (SUA), sometimes called Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) or drones, are advised to pay attention to safety issues. People flying drones should understand that they are subject to aviation rules and should not treat the devices as harmless gadgets or toys.


When flying unmanned aircraft you need to follow the rules set out in Article 73 of the Air Navigation (Overseas Territories) Order (AN(OT)O) 2013.

Bermuda’s drone rules are in place to protect members of the public from injury and protect property from damage. Although relatively small in size, drones may pose a significant collision risk to other aircraft if they are not flown sensibly.

There have already been deaths and serious injuries attributed to drones crashing.

The BCAA stresses that users must take personal responsibility when flying drones and abide by the rules. Any person who contravenes, permits the contravention of, or fails to comply with the rules and the directions put in place by the BCAA for purposes of confidentiality, safety and security, commits an offense and is liable to prosecution.


In Bermuda, they currently have five restricted areas where drones cannot be flown without certain permissions. Flying in these zones may lead to criminal prosecution and fines.

Bermuda No Fly Zones


Please email the Bermuda Department of Parks at parksdept@gov.bm to apply for a permit to fly over Government Land.


Respect personal privacy. Think before doing anything with any images you obtain as you may end up breaching privacy laws.


Don’t fly your drone within 50 m (165 feet) of a person, vehicle, building or structure, or over groups of people at any height.


It is illegal to fly your drone over a congested area (i.e., streets, towns and cities). Also, stay well clear of airports and airfields.


You may only fly your drone over your own property or property the owner of which has given you permission to fly over.


You are responsible for avoiding collisions with other people or objects – including aircraft.


You must keep the drone within your sight at all times and never fly above 400 feet (120 m). This means always being able to see the drone with your own eyes (rather than through a device, screen or goggles).


Before each flight, check that your drone is not damaged and that all components are working in accordance with the supplier’s user manual.


You are legally responsible for the conduct of each flight. Take time to understand the rules – failure to comply could lead to a criminal prosecution.



Legal requirements for the operation of small unmanned aircraft in the UK Overseas Territories

The requirements for the use of Small Unmanned Aircraft (SUA) in the UK Overseas Territories are laid down in the Air Navigation (Overseas Territories) Order. The main rules for their use are laid down in Article 73, however, Article 191 highlights the other articles that also apply to the use of small unmanned aircraft.

The following ASSI SUA Information Leaflets give details of the legal requirements for the use of SUAs, as well as guidance on various activities using SUAs.

ASSI SUA Information Leaflet No 1: Legal Requirements for SUAs (Issue 1, dated August 2022)

ASSI SUA Information Leaflet No 2: Operational Guidance for SUAs (Issue 1, dated August 2022)

ASSI SUA Information Leaflet No 3: Definitions and Glossary for SUAs (Issue 1, dated August 2022)

Drone Safety Leaflet

Please note that there may be additional airspace restrictions on flying SUAs in some Territories.

Montserrat: Direction prohibiting the use of all SUAs within the vicinity of John A Osborne International Airport (dated November 2019).

St Helena: Direction prohibiting and restricting the use of all SUAs within the vicinity of St Helena Airport (dated November 2019).

Ascension Island: Direction prohibiting the use of all SUAs within the vicinity of Wideawake Airfield (dated June 2016).

If you have a query with regard to operating a small unmanned aircraft in the UK Overseas Territories, please contact the appropriate authority.


The Director General
Bermuda Civil Aviation Authority
PO Box GE 218
St. George’s, GE BX

Telephone: + 1 441 293 1640
Fax: + 1 441 293 2417
Email: flightops@bcaa.bm

Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)


Short Essay Questions


Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone to film Bermuda’s unfinished church, pictured above.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.





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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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