93 Monaco

Two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white. The colors are those of the ruling House of Grimaldi and have been in use since 1339, making the flag one of the world’s oldest national banners.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

A view of Monte Carlo with the Port of Monaco in the foreground. The ship on the right is that of the prince of Monaco.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Monaco is a member of ICAO and EUROCONTROL.
Last updated on April 18, 2024


According to Britannica, with the fall of Napoleon I, however, the Grimaldis returned; the Congress of Vienna (1815) put Monaco under the protection of Sardinia. The principality lost the neighboring towns of Menton and Roquebrune in 1848 and finally ceded them to France under the terms of the Franco-Monegasque treaty of 1861. The treaty did restore Monaco’s independence, however, and in 1865 a customs union was established between the two countries. Another treaty that was made with France, in 1918, contained a clause providing that, in the event that the Grimaldi dynasty should become extinct, Monaco would become an autonomous state under French protection. A revision to the constitution in 2002 added females and their legitimate children to the line of succession. In 1997 the Grimaldi family commemorated 700 years of rule, and in 1999 Prince Rainier III marked 50 years on the throne. Upon his death in April 2005, he was succeeded by his son, Albert; Albert formally assumed the throne on July 12, 2005. The principality joined the United Nations in 1993. Though not a member of the European Union (EU), Monaco phased out the French franc for the single European currency of the euro by 2002.

Monaco’s refusal to impose income taxes on its residents and on international businesses that have established headquarters in the principality led to a severe crisis with France in 1962. A compromise was reached by which French citizens with less than five years residence in Monaco were taxed at French rates and taxes were imposed on Monegasque companies doing more than 25 percent of their business outside the principality. In the early 21st century, some European nations criticized Monaco’s loose banking regulations, claiming that the principality sheltered tax evaders and money launderers. In 2002 the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) added Monaco to its “blacklist” of uncooperative tax havens. The principality was removed from the blacklist in 2009 after committing to OECD transparency standards.

Monaco’s constitution of 1911 provided for an elected National Council, but in 1959 Prince Rainier III suspended part of the constitution and dissolved the National Council because of a disagreement over the budget. In 1961 he appointed instead a national assembly. The aforementioned crisis of 1962 with France led him to restore the National Council and to grant a new, liberal constitution. The council comprises 18 members, elected by universal suffrage for a term of five years. Government is carried on by a minister of state (who must be a French citizen) and three state councillors acting under the authority of the prince, who is the official chief of state. Legislative power is shared by the prince and the National Council. Since 1819 the judicial system has been based on that of France; since 1962 the highest judicial authority has been the Supreme Tribunal.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

The Monaco Civil Aviation Authority, in liaison with the Department of the Environment, is responsible for implementing the process of obtaining Airport Council International Europe carbon accreditation for Monaco International Heliport. The aim of this three-level process is to achieve carbon neutrality. The office deals with:

  • The drafting, implementation and monitoring of legislation and regulations on civil aviation
  • Managing the air space and the heliport, and supervision of helipads
  • Keeping the civil aviation register, monitoring the airworthiness of aircraft, and authorization of air crew licenses
  • Supervising aircraft operators and private aircraft
  • Monitoring the implementation of bilateral and international agreements on air transport, participating in the work of international organizations in this field to which the Principality belongs
  • Monitoring air security and participation in air safety inspections


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ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G.

Drone Regulations

New regulations on use of drones

Ministerial Order No. 2021-532 of August 2, 2021 relating to the conditions of use of unmanned and remotely piloted aircraft, light free balloons, ultra-light gliders and towed aircraft.

How to apply for approval to operate drones

All natural or legal persons wishing to operate a remotely piloted aircraft weighing more than 100g must be holders of a certificate of authorization issued by the Director of Civil Aviation.

This authorization, which includes a list of the remote pilots and the remotely piloted aircraft authorized, is issued for a validity period of one years.

The operator, once approved, must obtain authorization prior to every flight.

If you wish to undertake a flight without taking photographs, contact the Civil Aviation Authority.

The use of model aircraft with a mass of less than 100g, captive flying devices, lightweight free-flying balloons and ultra-light gliders is freely permitted, with the exception of the vicinity of the Prince’s Palace, the Place du Palais and within 150 meters of the heliport.

Except with special authorization, the use of any flying device is forbidden:

  • Above the Place du Palais and the Prince’s Palace
  • Less than 150 meters from the boundaries of the heliport of Monaco
  • Above the whole of the Principality of Monaco during the periods determined and indicated by Ministerial Decree

Collating the documents

You must provide:

  • A copy of the identity document of the company’s Managing Director and of each remote pilot
  • For drones weighing more than 700 g, documentation relating to the parachute installed
  • A copy of the company’s registration with the trade register of the country of origin (RCI, K-Bis or equivalent …)
  • Evidence that you are aged 18 or over at the time of application
  • An electronic or digital signaling system compatible with the identification system for unmanned remote-controlled aircraft in force in the Principality
  • An identification plate of the aircraft indicating the name, address and telephone number of the operator
  • A description of the flying devices: brand, type, main dimensions, mass, main constituent parts and materials used, predicted performance
  • The type of engine
  • The type of propellers
  • The make and type of the remote control system and frequency range used
  • A description of the power system and associated protective features
  • A description and proof of mandatory security features (barometric sensor, emergency landing device, third party protection)
  • A description of the maintenance procedures for the flying devices
  • A copy of the operator’s public liability insurance contract
  • A copy of the flying license, or certificate for a theoretical examination taken
  • A Special Activities Manual comprising the following information:
    • Setting out satisfactory security conditions for operating remotely piloted aircraft, in particular for protecting third parties on the ground and in flight.  It must contain the rules and procedures to be followed for operating remotely piloted aircraft, as well as all the necessary information for dealing with incidents and accidents
    • Setting out the requirements for undertaking special activities that are adapted to each type of remotely piloted aircraft.  It must state the checks that the remote pilot carries out to check that the aircraft and remote control system is functioning correctly before each flight
    • Reiterate the requirements to be respected for the implementation of the rules of the air
    • Describe security measures vis-à-vis third parties (limitations of use, dealing with breakdowns and loss of control, limiting risks in the case of impact, etc.)
    • For each type of special activity, state whether the remote pilot can, at the same time, be responsible for and undertake the tasks relating to flying the aircraft and those required of the person in charge of executing the special activity mission.  In cases where two people are required, state the relationship between and responsibilities of these two people
    • List the remote pilots, with the corresponding remotely controlled aircraft that they will be piloting
    • Explain the level of training of the remote pilots
    • State, if necessary, the special conditions for operating the aircraft at night

Déposer le dossier

The application must be submitted on the Flysafe platform

If you do not yet have an account on the platform, you can create one to access your personal space and begin the procedures.

The cost of authorization is listed in the Ministerial Decree setting the fees for the issue of administrative documents relating to aircraft and aeronautical qualifications.

The authorization is issued by the Director of the Civil Aviation Authority following payment of the relevant fees.

Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)


Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone to film in Monte Carlo, pictured above.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.





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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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