59 Bosnia and Herzegovina

A wide blue vertical band on the fly side with a yellow isosceles triangle abutting the band and the top of the flag. The remainder of the flag is blue with seven full five-pointed white stars and two half stars top and bottom along the hypotenuse of the triangle. The triangle approximates the shape of the country and its three points stand for the constituent peoples – Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs. The stars represent Europe and are meant to be continuous (thus the half stars at top and bottom); the colors (white, blue, and yellow) are often associated with neutrality and peace, and traditionally are linked with Bosnia.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

The Cathedral of Jesus’ Heart is the largest cathedral in Bosnia and Herzegovina and is the center of Catholic worship in the city of Sarajevo. Located in the Old Town district, the church was constructed between 1884 and 1889 in the Neo-Gothic style, but displays Romanesque elements. Although damaged during the Siege of Sarajevo (1992-1994), it has been completely restored.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Last updated on April 17, 2024

Government

According to Britannica, the internationally brokered Dayton Accords, the peace agreement negotiated in Dayton, Ohio, U.S., in November 1995, established Bosnia and Herzegovina as a state composed of two highly autonomous entities, the Republika Srpska (Bosnian Serb Republic) and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The latter is a decentralized federation of Croats and Bosniaks. Each entity has its own legislature and president. The central institutions of Bosnia and Herzegovina include a directly elected tripartite presidency, which rotates every eight months between one Bosniak, one Serb, and one Croat member. The presidency, as the head of state, appoints a multiethnic Council of Ministers. The chairman of the council, who is appointed by the presidency and approved by the national House of Representatives, serves as the head of government. The parliament is bicameral. Members are directly elected to the 42-seat lower house (House of Representatives), in which 28 seats are reserved for the Federation and 14 for the Republika Srpska. Members of the upper house (the House of Peoples, with five members from each ethnic group) are chosen by the entity legislatures. The central institutions of Bosnia and Herzegovina are weak, with the bulk of governmental competencies residing in the two entities. Internationally led efforts to replace the unwieldy and costly constitutional structure of Bosnia and Herzegovina with a more functional one, capable of integrating into the European Union, have been opposed by the country’s nationalist leaders.

The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is decentralized; it is administratively divided into 10 cantons, which in turn are divided into dozens of municipalities (općine). The Republika Srpska is relatively centralized and is administratively divided into dozens of municipalities (opštine). Citizens of both entities directly elect mayors and representatives to municipal and cantonal assemblies. Arbitration in 1997 established Brčko, in the northeast, as a self-governing special district.

The Dayton Accords established the Constitutional Court, which has exclusive jurisdiction to decide any dispute that arises between the entities, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and the entities, or between the institutions of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Three of the nine members of the Constitutional Court are appointed by the president of the European Court of Human Rights; the others are selected by the entities. The State Court, comprising administrative, appellate, and criminal divisions, has jurisdiction over matters regarding national law. Each entity also has its own Supreme Court and lower courts. Since its establishment by the United Nations Security Council in 1993, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia has exercised jurisdiction over grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions as well as for war crimes, genocide, and crimes against humanity. In 2002 Bosnia and Herzegovina’s national courts gained jurisdiction over cases that did not involve major political and military figures.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

The Bosnia and Herzegovina Directorate of Civil Aviation as an authority responsible for performing regulatory functions, oversight and issuing licenses, permits and certificates in the field of civil aviation and air traffic control, was established in 1997 with a goal to respond to the numerous obligations of Bosnia and Herzegovina as a Member State of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and signatory to the Chicago Convention. In addition, Bosnia and Herzegovina is a member of the European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC), a full member of the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) and European Organization for the Safety of Air Navigation, and holds the observer status in the work of the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). Bosnia and Herzegovina ratified the European Common Aviation Area (ECAA) Agreement and signed a working arrangement with EASA, thus accepting the obligation to implement European Union regulations in the field of civil aviation. The BHDCA was established as part of the Ministry of Communications and Transport of Bosnia and Herzegovina (MKTBIH), and its organization, management, competences and responsibilities are regulated by the Aviation Law of Bosnia and Herzegovina and by the Rulebook amending the Rulebook on the internal organization of the MKTBIH.

Airspace

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ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Bosnia AIP

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

By establishing Bosnia and Herzegovina Air Navigation Services Agency (BHANSA), Bosnia and Herzegovina has provided the conditions for the beginning of taking control and management of its airspace. BHANSA was established in 2009. by adopting of the Law on Bosnia and Herzegovina Air Navigation Services Agency (“Official Gazette of BiH”, No. 43/09) as a non-profit and financially independent institution with the status of a legal entity. A headquarter of BHANSA is in Mostar, and other organizational units are arranged in Banja Luka, Sarajevo and Tuzla. On November 13, 2014, BHANSA has started to provide regional air traffic control services from the Air Traffic Control Unit (ATCU I) in the airspace of Bosnia and Herzegovina up to 10,000 meters (from FL 100 to FL 325). Bosnia and Herzegovina Air Navigation Services Agency (BHANSA) took control over Bosnia and Herzegovina’s airspace after midnight on December 4, 2019 thus opening a new chapter in the history of BH aviation.

The Air Navigation Section of the Directorate of Civil Aviation shall be responsible for the defining of the organization and sectorization of the BIH airspace in accordance with standards and recommendations of international organizations – ICAO, EUROCONTROL. While monitoring international standards and recommended practices in the area of air navigation and implementing them in the national legislation, this Section shall propose improvements in the organization and methodology of work, and conduct audits within its competence for the area of air navigation. It shall also propose amendments, participate in the drafting and adopting of regulations and individual legal acts in compliance with the laws, other regulations, international acts, accepted national and international standards and recommended practice concerning recruitment policies in air traffic services, candidate selection processes, planning for air traffic controller training and licensing, and approve air traffic controller training programs. This Section shall be responsible for the certification of new CNS systems and their modifications, as well for the auditing of technical facilities, equipment and devices relevant for safety of air navigation, particularly in terms of serviceability and proper operation of radio-navigation, radar and other emitters and technical facilities and communication systems. The Section shall be responsible for the monitoring of international standards and recommended practice in the area of aeronautical meteorology and for their implementation in the national legislation. It shall propose rules and instructions on the provision of mandatory information on aeronautical meteorology, and continually provide aeronautical meteorological information services to aircraft, airport climatology information, etc. The Section shall monitor the work of aeronautical data providers and the preparation of legislative and organizational basis for their proper working within the AIS system. The Section shall also establish standards, develop operational instructions for the staff working at flight procedure design organizations. It shall verify and approve the design of instrument and visual arrival, approach, landing and missed approach procedures for aircraft at aerodromes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Section shall perform analyses, propose documents and control all developed documents, and any charts published. It shall also conduct activities and analyses with regards to environmental protection.

Drone Regulations

Drone laws – The Bosnia and Herzegovina Directorate of Civil Aviation has published the Rulebook on the Requirements for Aerial Drone Operations (Official Gazette of BIH 51/20). The following excerpts have been taken from the Rulebook as the most relevant for the topic:

BASIC RULES FOR THE USE OF DRONES
1. The provisions of this Rulebook apply to drones with a maximum take-off mass of 249 g up to 25 kg.
2. Drones with a maximum take-off mass greater than 25 kg require special BHDCA approval;
3. Categories of drone operations: non-commercial (OPEN), commercial (SPECIFIC) and aerial work (CERTIFIED);
4. Drone categories: A1 (249 g – 1 kg), A2 (1 kg – 2 kg), A3 (2 kg – 5 kg) and A4 (5 kg – 25 kg);
5. Basic rules for non-commercial operations (OPEN):
a) drones shall be flown only during daylight hours and within the visual line of sight of the drone operator;
b) The maximum permissible altitude for drone operation is up to 30 m AGL (above ground level);
c) the lateral distance from people, animals, structures, vehicles, vessels, roads, railways, waterways, power transmission lines, etc. must be at least 30 m. Flying over people is not permitted.
d) the lateral distance from a public gathering must be at least 50 m;
e) it is not permitted to fly a drone at a lateral distance of less than 500 m from: industrial zones, embassies, government facilities and institutions, as well as other public buildings;
f) all drones with a mass greater than 1 kg shall require a valid insurance policy which covers damage to third parties in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
g) it is not permitted to fly a drone from within a protection area located within 300 m from the border line in the depth of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, unless the drone operator or drone owner has obtained prior consent of the B&H Border Police.
6. Basic rules for commercial operations (SPECIFIC)
a) drone operations in daylight conditions shall be carried out within the operator’s visual line of sight, where the drone operator must be familiar with the environment in which he/she operates the drone, designate a dedicated landing site, and mark it visibly (in the case of autonomous landing). If the drone operations are carried out beyond the visual line of sight, the lateral distance must not exceed 1000 m from the drone operator.
b) for operations at night, the drone must be equipped with light-signaling devices, it must be flown only within the visual line of sight, the dedicated landing site must be in the immediate vicinity of the drone operator (in the case of autonomous landing), and the maximum altitude shall not exceed 30 m AGL. It is not allowed to fly a drone over a group of people, important buildings and the like.
c) Drone operators must have a valid drone insurance policy that covers damage to third parties on the ground in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of the drone’s mass.
d) The minimum lateral distance from people, animals, structures, vehicles, vessels, roads, railways, waterways, power transmission lines or other remotely piloted aircraft must be at least 30 m.
e) when flying a drone, drone operators who are unable to adhere to the prescribed lateral distances referred to in point d) due to the environment and surrounding obstacles may fly the drone at a smaller lateral distance, but not smaller than 5 m, while the flight altitude must not exceed 20 m AGL.
f) The maximum permissible flight altitude of a drone is up to 120 m AGL or up to 50 m above an obstacle.
g) the lateral distance from industrial zones, embassies, government facilities and institutions, and other public buildings must not be less than 100 m.
h) drones may be operated within an airport area at a distance of less than 1.5 km from the airport or CTR zone, only with the prior consent of the competent Air Traffic Control or Airspace Management Cell (AMC), and the drone operator shall be obligated to comply with the terms of the consent.

i) it is not permitted to fly a drone from within a protection area located within 300 m from the border line in the depth of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, unless the drone operator or drone owner has obtained prior consent of the B&H Border Police.

7. Basic rules for aerial work performed by drones (CERTIFIED)

Prior to commencing drone operations, the drone operator must contact the BHDCA in order to obtain a special approval for performing aerial work by drones in the airspace of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

8. Any drones that are under the responsibility of foreign institutions (army, police, customs and other similar organizations) must obtain approval of the competent institution in Bosnia and Herzegovina before conducting drone operations.

Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)

 

Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone over Sarajevo, pictured above.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.

 

 

 

License

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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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