111 Sweden

Blue with a golden yellow cross extending to the edges of the flag. The vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag). The colors reflect those of the Swedish coat of arms – three gold crowns on a blue field.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

Ice hotel (2005).

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Sweden is a member of ICAO, EUROCONTROL, JARUS, EASA, and the EU.
Last updated on July 5, 2024

Government

According to Britannica, Sweden is a constitutional monarchy. The constitution, dating from 1809 and revised in 1975, is based on the following four fundamental laws: the Instrument of Government, the Act of Succession, the Freedom of the Press Act, and the Riksdag (Parliament) Act. All the laws have been subject to amendment. The constitution is based on the principles of popular sovereignty, representative democracy, and parliamentarism.

The reigning monarch is the head of state but exerts no political power; the responsibilities of the monarch are ceremonial only. Succession is accorded to the firstborn child regardless of sex. The prime minister is nominated by the speaker of the Riksdag after consultations with party leaders and must be approved for office through a vote of the Riksdag. The prime minister appoints the other cabinet members. The cabinet is responsible for all government decisions.

The ministries are small, and they are not concerned with details of administration or implementation of legislation. This is handled by central administrative agencies, whose senior officials are appointed by the cabinet.

In the preparation of important measures to be considered by the government, the responsible minister normally calls upon a commission of inquiry to appraise the measure. The commission may often include politicians from opposition parties, representatives of labour, and scientists and civil servants. They produce a printed report that is sent to various agencies and organizations for official comments before it is presented as background material to government legislation.

The Riksdag, a unicameral parliament elected by the people for four-year terms, is the foundation for the democratic exercise of power through the cabinet. The Riksdag appoints its speaker, deputy speakers, and standing committees, in which parties are represented in proportion to their strength. All bills are referred to committees; the results of their deliberations are reported in printed form to the Riksdag in plenary session.

The Riksdag may call for a consultative (nonbinding) referendum on various issues; decisive (binding) referenda may be held on amendments to the constitution if demanded by one-third of the Riksdag.

Local government is allocated to the kommuner (municipalities), each with an elected assembly and the right to levy income taxes and to charge fees for various services. Municipalities have a strong independent position. Streets, sewerage, water supply, schools, public assistance, child welfare, housing, and care for elderly people are among their responsibilities. Elections coincide with parliamentary elections.

Between the national and municipal government is a regional tier of 21 län (counties) headed by a county governor, appointed by the national government. Each county also has an elected council that has the right to levy income tax and that administers health care, certain educational and vocational training, and regional transport.

The National Law Code of 1734 is still in force, although almost none of its original text remains. In modern times, moreover, a mass of special legislation has grown outside the code to cover new needs. Roman law has had less influence in Sweden than in most European countries. Since the end of the 19th century, much civil law has been prepared in collaboration with the other Nordic countries.

Primary responsibility for the enforcement of law devolves upon the courts and the administrative authorities. Sweden has a three-tiered hierarchy of courts: the district courts (tingsrätter), the intermediate courts of appeal (hovrätter), and the Supreme Court (högsta domstolen). District courts play the dominant role. A peculiar feature of these courts is a panel of lay assessors (nämndemän), who take part in the main hearings, primarily on more serious criminal and family cases. In such cases, the bench consists of a legally trained judge as chairman and three lay assessors. These panels are not to be confused with an Anglo-American or continental type of jury.

In the six courts of appeal (the oldest one established in 1614), cases are decided by three or four judges. Appeals against their decisions can be carried to the Supreme Court only if the case is deemed important to the interpretation of law. In the Supreme Court the bench consists of five justices (justitieråd).

Legal aid is provided for anyone who wants it. The general penalties for convictions are fines and imprisonment. Fines are set in proportion to the person’s daily income. Offenders under 18 years of age are sentenced to prison only in exceptional cases.

The decisions of administrative authorities, which cannot be appealed to an ordinary court of justice, can be appealed to higher administrative authorities and ultimately to the government or to administrative courts, such as county administrative courts (länsrätter) in matters of taxation. Higher administrative courts of appeal are called kammarrätter. The highest administrative tribunal is the Supreme Administrative Court (regeringsrätten), which tries cases involving such issues as taxation, insanity, alcoholism, and juvenile delinquency.

The Labor Court (Arbetsdomstolen) is a special body that deals with controversies in the interpretation and application of collective bargaining agreements. Of its seven members, two represent labour and two represent management.

The Office of the Parliamentary Ombudsman (Justitieombudsman) is an original Swedish institution, established in 1809; it has become a model for similar offices in other countries. The ombudsman’s chief duty is to see that the courts and civil service enforce the laws properly, especially those laws that safeguard the freedom, security, and property of citizens. They have the power to institute prosecutions in court and, in particular, to act against officials who abuse their powers or act illegally. Other ombudsmen are not appointed by the Riksdag but have similar duties of surveillance in other areas. Thus, there are an antitrust ombudsman, a consumer ombudsman, an equal-opportunities ombudsman, and an ethnic-discrimination ombudsman.

The chancellor of justice (justitiekansler) is a government appointee who supervises courts and administrative organs with particular concern for safeguarding the state’s interests.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

The Swedish Transport Agency is working to achieve good accessibility, high quality, secure and environmentally aware rail, air, sea and road transport. We have overall responsibility for drawing up regulations and ensuring that authorities, companies, organizations and citizens abide by them. The Swedish Transport Agency was established on the 1st of January 2009.

Airspace

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ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Sweden AIP

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Drone Regulations

Drone Laws

In order to facilitate the further development of drones while maintaining a high level of safety as drone use increases, new drone regulations were introduced on 1 January 2021. These regulations apply in all EU member states, but do not cover drones flown indoors.

The regulations in short:

Compulsory registration for operators of almost all drone types. Registered operators get an operator ID, that their drone must be labelled with. It must be possible to identify the drone from a distance using the operator ID. It must also be possible to determine the drone’s geographical position as well as its altitude, speed and flight path. New drones shall be programmed with the operator ID.

Open category remote pilots must undergo training and take a test. Having passed the test, the pilot will get a drone licence, which allows him or her to fly a drone. The drone licence is valid for 5 years. In association with the drone license there are a few things you need to be aware of:

You can pay via Swish (Swedish e-payment) or invoice only. At the moment, we cannot accept payment by credit card, nor Apple pay or Line pay.

If invoice is selected it will be sent to you by regular post so it probably will take some time until you receive it.

The test is in Swedish only and will be sent by e-mail. It has to be completed within 24 hours including returning it to us by e-mail.

One test is included when you have paid the fee, 130 SEK.

The test can be sent out once everything is registered in our systems.

When you pass the test, a drone license is issued.

Please be aware that the process from application to the issue of a drone license may take up to 90 days.

For drones weighing up to 25 kilos, no special permits from the Swedish Transport Agency are required. All you are required to have is a drone licence and an operator ID, as long as you follow the three basic rules of drone flying: fly within your visual line of sight, no more than 120 meters above the ground, and always in a way that does not put others in danger. Drones weighing up to 25 kilos are included in the open category. However, other permits may be required, such as a dissemination permit for images and video, from the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority (Lantmäteriet), or a permit from the nearest airport to fly within its control zone.

If the flight exceeds any of the limitations for the open category, you have to follow the rules for either the specific category or the certified category. This applies to a number of situations, e.g. if you wish to fly beyond your visual line of sight or higher than 120 meters, but also if you wish to fly close to people without their permission or over a crowd of people.

Find out more about the regulations, register as an operator and take the drone license (Swedish language only). More detailed information in English about the regulations can be found at the European Union Aviation Safety Agency – EASA – website.

Declarations and operational authorizations for foreign operators

Are you a non-Swedish operator? You will find here relevant information about operational permits and declarations for drones. Please choose the option below that applies to you.

Information for EASA Member States

Information for third country operators

If you got any further questions about drones please contact:

Telephone number: 0771-779 779 (from abroad +46 771 779 779)
Open hours: 1 PM – 3 PM.

E-mail: luftfart@transportstyrelsen.se

Declarations and operational authorizations for foreign operators

Are you a non-Swedish operator? You will find here relevant information about operational permits and declarations for drones. Please choose the option below that applies to you.

Information for EASA Member States

Information for third country operators

 

Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)

2022 – Sweden to fly Linköping-to-Norrköping drone missions in October as precursor to UAM/AAM

2023 – ZeroAvia strikes deal to bring zero-emission flights to Sweden

2023 – STILFOLD aims to revolutionize urban air mobility with ‘origami’ vertiports

2024 – Unifly’s UTM Platform Advances Urban Air Mobility in Europe

2024 – Electric Aircraft Initiative for Swedish Island

 

Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone to film the ice hotel, pictured above.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.

 

 

 

License

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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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