OH – Ohio

Flag courtesy of Wikipedia

Blue Hen Falls in the spring in Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio. Photo courtesy of the US National Park Service.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Ohio government website just for reference.

The OHDOT has a OHDOT UAS Page.

Ohio Legislature in case more laws were written since this book was published.

2024 – Ohio Launches Traffic Management System For Drone Operations

Map courtesy of Wikipedia

Google Earth

Last updated on June 5, 2024

Airspace

In addition to checking the FAA UAS Facility Map or B4UFLY or SkyVector or Google Maps one should consider also FAA JO 7400.10F – Special Use Airspace which is an order, published yearly, providing a listing of all regulatory and non-regulatory special use airspace areas, as well as issued but not yet implemented amendments to those areas established by the FAA.

Special Use Airspace consists of airspace of defined dimensions identified by an area on the surface of the earth wherein activities must be confined because of their nature, or wherein limitations are imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a part of those activities, or both. The vertical limits of special use airspace are measured by designated altitude floors and ceilings expressed as flight levels or as feet above MSL. Unless otherwise specified, the word “to” (an altitude or flight level) means “to and including” (that altitude or flight level). The horizontal limits of special use airspace are measured by boundaries described by geographic coordinates or other appropriate references that clearly define their perimeter. The period of time during which a designation of special use airspace is in effect is stated in the designation. All bearings and radials in this part are true from point of origin. Unless otherwise specified, all mileages in this part are stated as statute miles.

Restricted Areas: No person may operate an aircraft within a restricted area between the designated altitudes and during the time of designation, unless they have the advance permission of:

(a) The using agency described in § 73.15; or

(b) The controlling agency described in § 73.17.

These using agencies may be the agency, organization, or military command whose activity within a restricted area necessitated the area being so designated. Upon the request of the FAA, the using agency shall execute a letter establishing procedures for joint use of a restricted area by the using agency and the controlling agency, under which the using agency would notify the controlling agency whenever the controlling agency may grant permission for transit through the restricted area in accordance with the terms of the letter. The using agency shall:

(1) Schedule activities within the restricted area;

(2) Authorize transit through, or flight within, the restricted area as feasible; and

(3) Contain within the restricted area all activities conducted therein in accordance with the purpose for which it was designated.

For the purposes of this part, the controlling agency is the FAA facility that may authorize transit through or flight within a restricted area in accordance with a joint-use letter issued under § 73.15.

Prohibited Areas: No person may operate an aircraft within a prohibited area unless authorization has been granted by the using agency. For the purpose of this subpart, the using agency is the agency, organization or military command that established the requirements for the prohibited area.

Military Operations Areas: A Military Operations Area (MOA) is airspace established outside of Class A airspace to separate/segregate certain nonhazardous military activities from IFR traffic and to identify for VFR traffic where these activities are conducted. Activities. MOA’s are established to contain certain military activities such as air combat maneuvers, air intercepts, acrobatics, etc.

Alert Areas:  Airspace which may contain a high volume of pilot training activities or an unusual type of aerial activity, neither of which is hazardous to aircraft.

Warning Areas: A non regulatory warning area is airspace of defined dimensions designated over international waters that contains activity which may be hazardous to nonparticipating aircraft. The purpose of such warning areas is to warn nonparticipating pilots of the potential danger. Activities may be hazardous.

National Security Areas: A national security area (NSA) consists of airspace of defined vertical and lateral dimensions established at locations where there is a requirement for increased security of ground facilities. The purpose of such national security areas is to request pilot cooperation by voluntarily avoiding flight through the NSA. When circumstances dictate a need for a greater level of security, flight in an NSA may be temporarily prohibited by regulation under the provisions of 14 CFR Section 99.7, Special Security Instructions. Such prohibitions will be issued by FAA Headquarters and disseminated via the US NOTAM System.

 

 

Crewed Aircraft in your Airspace

CREWED AIRCRAFT

Lastly, if you want to be informed about crewed aircraft flying in the vicinity of your drone operation, you can always check with apps like FlightAware or ADS-B Exchange

 

Ohio Revised Code Section 122.98

Title 1 – State Government

Chapter 122 – Department of Development.

Ohio aerospace and aviation technology committee.

(A) There is hereby created the Ohio aerospace and aviation technology committee, consisting of the following members:

(1) Three members of the senate, appointed by the president of the senate, not more than two of whom may be members of the same political party;

(2) Three members of the house of representatives, appointed by the speaker of the house of representatives, not more than two of whom may be members of the same political party;

(3) Fifteen members representing the aviation, aerospace, or technology industry, the military, or academia. One such member shall be appointed by the governor, and fourteen such members shall be appointed by majority vote of the six members representing the senate and house of representatives.

The legislative members of the committee shall be appointed not later than September 1, 2014, and the remaining members shall be appointed within ten days thereafter. The initial term of all members shall end on December 31, 2016. Thereafter, the term of all members shall end on the thirty-first day of December of the year following the year of appointment. Vacancies shall be filled in the manner of the original appointment.

The first legislator appointed to the committee by the speaker of the house of representatives after the effective date of H.B. 292 of the 130th general assembly, September 17, 2014, shall serve as the first chairperson of the committee and shall serve until December 31, 2016. Every general assembly thereafter, the committee shall select a chairperson from among its legislative members.

(B) The duties of the committee shall include, but are not limited to, all of the following:

(1) Studying and developing comprehensive strategies to promote the aviation, aerospace, and technology industry throughout the state, including through the commercialization of aviation, aerospace, and technology products and ideas;

(2) Encouraging communication and resource-sharing among individuals and organizations involved in the aviation, aerospace, and technology industry, including business, the military, and academia;

(3) Promoting research and development in the aviation, aerospace, and technology industry, including research and development of unmanned aerial vehicles;

(4) Providing assistance related to military base realignment and closure.

(C) The Ohio aerospace and aviation council shall serve as an advisory council to the committee.

(D) The committee shall compile an annual report of its activities, findings, and recommendations and shall furnish a copy of the report to the governor, president of the senate, and speaker of the house of representatives not later than the thirty-first day of December of each year.

Ohio Rule 1501:3-2-16

Rule 1501:3-2-16

No person shall operate, take off, or ascend within or from the lands or waters administered by the division in any airplane, flying machine, balloon, glider, unmanned aerial vehicle, or other aerial apparatus except with the permission of the chief of the division or authorized agent.

No person shall voluntarily bring, land or alight, within or upon the lands or waters administered by the division, in any airplane, flying machine, balloon, parachute, unmanned aerial vehicle, or other aerial apparatus except with the permission of the chief of the division or authorized agent.

Ohio Rule 3339-16-17

Rule 3339-16-17

The operation of small unmanned aircraft systems (“UAS”), including drones and model aircraft, on university property and in university airspace (collectively, “university property”) is regulated by the federal aviation administration (“FAA”) pursuant to 14 C.F.R. Part 107 (“Part 107”) and 14 C.F.R. Part 101 (“Part 101”). This rule seeks to ensure compliance with those legal obligations, to protect privacy, and to reduce risks to safety and security.

This rule applies to the operation of all UASs on university property by all persons, including, without limitation, university faculty, employees, students, contractors, and visitors. This rule also applies to the operation of UASs on or above non-university property in support of university-sponsored or university-sanctioned activities.

(A) General requirements applicable to all UASs and all persons operating UASs on university property for any purpose

(1) All UASs operated on university property must have a wingspan of six feet or less.

(2) All UASs operated on university property must weigh less than fifty-five pounds at take-off.

(3) If a UAS weighs more than fifty-five one-hundredths pounds, then it must be registered with the FAA. If a UAS is required to be registered, the FAA-issued registration number must be affixed to the UAS so that the registration number is clearly visible.

(4) The B4UFLY smartphone application must be downloaded and utilized by all persons operating a UAS on university property. The B4UFLY application was created by the FAA to assist UAS operators determine whether there are any restrictions or requirements in effect at the location where they want to fly.

(5) UAS operators must be at least eighteen years or older.

(6) UAS operators that have obtained permission to operate a UAS on university property under this rule must notify and be registered with the Miami university police department at least twenty-four hours in advance of such operation.

(7) Except for public entities (as defined below), any person that is not a university student or employee who wishes to operate a UAS on university property must enter into a written agreement with the university that, among other things, requires such person to:

(a) Hold the university harmless from any claims or harm to individuals caused by the persons operation of the UAS;

(b) Indemnify the university for any damages to property owned or used by the university that are caused by the persons operation of the UAS; and

(c) Obtain a liability insurance policy with at least one million dollars in liability coverage, and add the university as an additional insured under such insurance policy.

(8) Any person wishing to operate a UAS on university property shall be personally responsible for complying with all university policies and all applicable state and federal laws. All persons operating a UAS on university property do so at their own risk.

(9) No person may operate a UAS for purposes of recording or transmitting visual images unless such purpose is approved in writing by the associate provost for research (for university students and instructional staff) or by the director of environmental health and safety offices (for persons who are not university students or instructional staff). If such permission is given, an operator of a UAS equipped with a camera or video recorder must take all reasonable measures to avoid violations of areas normally considered private, and such UAS may not be used to monitor or record areas where there is a reasonable expectation of privacy in accordance with accepted social norms. These areas include, but are not limited to, restrooms, locker rooms, individual residential rooms, changing or dressing rooms, and health treatment rooms. No UAS shall be used to monitor or record residential hallways, residential lounges, or the insides of campus daycare facilities. No UAS shall be used to monitor or record sensitive institutional or personal information which may be found, for example, on an individuals workspaces, on computers or other electronic displays.

(B) Operation of UAS for recreational purposes or limited educational purposes

Persons operating a UAS as a hobby or for recreation are required to comply with all of the provisions of Sections 101.41 to 101.43 of Part 101. As used in this rule, the term “Recreational Purpose(s)” means the pursuit of an activity outside of ones regular occupation that is engaged in for fun, relaxation, or as a means of refreshment or diversion.

Generally, the operation of a UAS by university faculty, staff, or students in their official capacities will not qualify as a UAS operation for recreational purposes. However, a university students operation of a UAS under the following limited circumstances (“limited educational purpose(s)”) will nevertheless qualify as an operation of a UAS under Part 101, and therefore be deemed an operation for recreational purposes: when a university students operation of a UAS is a component of the students science, technology, or aviation-related educational curricula; or when a university students operation of a UAS is a component of the students other coursework, such as television and film production or the arts.

Note that student operation of a UAS will not qualify as a limited educational purpose if the UAS is operated in support of a faculty members research or other sponsored activity, or the student receives any form of compensation directly or incidentally related to the students operation of the UAS. University faculty may assist students who are operating a UAS for limited educational purposes, provided that the student maintains operational control of the UAS such that the faculty members manipulation of the UASs controls is incidental and secondary to the students (e.g. the faculty member steps in to regain control in the event a student begins to lose control of a UAS, to terminate a flight, etc.). In all other circumstances, faculty operation of a UAS does not qualify as a recreational purpose or limited educational purpose. For further explanation and examples of student uses of a UAS for limited educational purposes, please see the FAAs interpretive memorandum dated May 4, 2016, with the subject line “educational use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS).”

(1) Any person wishing to operate a UAS for a recreational purpose or for a limited education purpose must comply with each of the following preflight requirements:

(a) Submit a request in writing to the associate provost for research:

(i) Outlining the proposed flight schedule and proposed flight activity;

(ii) Identifying any person that will be operating a UAS on university property;

(iii) Providing the FAA registration number (if applicable);

(iv) Providing the manufacturer and model number of the UAS to be operated;

(v) Providing all pertinent specifications of the UAS (e.g. weight, maximum range, maximum altitude, whether the UAS has dual controls, whether the UAS has “return home” programming, etc.); and

(vi) Indicating whether such UAS operation will involve recording or transmitting visual images.

(b) Obtain the written permission of the associate provost for research as to the time, place, and manner of the proposed UAS operation.

(c) UAS operations for a recreational purpose or for a limited educational purpose will be limited to the following areas (each an “authorized location”):

(i) Chestnut fields (105 W. Chestnut avenue, behind the parking lot).

(ii) Ditmar parking lot (behind Miami university police department and Ditmer parking lot).

(iii) Bonham field/Fryman parking lot

(d) At the direction of the associate provost for research, a person wishing to operate a UAS for a recreational purpose or for a limited educational purpose must reserve an authorized location by contacting the director of special events at Miami recreation.

(e) Once written permission has been obtained from the associate provost for research, provide advanced notice to all airport operators and airport air traffic control towers (if any) within a three mile radius of the UAS flight path. Any notice should include the proposed flight path, flight date and time, and any information requested by such airport operators and airport air traffic control towers.

(f) Persons operating a UAS on the University’s Oxford campus must notify the Miami university airport and McCullough-Hyde memorial hospital.

(2) Any person operating a UAS for recreational purposes or for limited educational purposes shall abide by the following operational requirements:

(a) Operate the UAS strictly for a recreational purpose or for a limited educational purpose and not for instructional, research, work, compensation/hire, or any other business purpose.

(b) Comply with all applicable parts of Part 101 and operate the UAS in accordance with the safety code promulgated by the academy of model aeronautics; provided, that if there is a conflict between this rule and any requirements found in Part 101 or the safety code promulgated by the academy of model aeronautics, the requirements contained in this rule shall control.

(c) Review and understand all airspace restrictions that may apply to the operation of a UAS, including, without limitation, any temporary flight restrictions, and any restricted or special use airspace.

(d) Operate the UAS at or below two hundred feet. The associate provost for research may grant special permission to operate a UAS up to four hundred feet.

(e) Operate the UAS at or below a ground speed of fifty miles per hour. The associate provost for research may grant special permission to operate a UAS at a ground speed up to one hundred miles per hour.

(f) Operate the UAS at all times within the operators line of sight without visual aids (such as binoculars, telescope, etc.).

(g) Operate the UAS so as to never interfere with manned aircraft, and always yield the right of way to manned aircraft.

(h) Operate the UAS in class G airspace as indicated by the B4UFLY application.

(i) Avoid operating a UAS in highly populated areas, near high traffic areas, and near public thoroughfares.

(j) Never operate a UAS:

(i) At night or in inclement weather;

(ii) From a moving vehicle;

(iii) Directly over any unprotected human being;

(iv) Over or within one hundred feet of stadiums, sports events, graduation commencement or other ceremonies, or emergency response efforts (e.g. fires, law enforcement activities, etc.).

(v) While under the influence of drugs or alcohol; or

(vi) Inside a building (unless specific permission for such activity is obtained from the associate provost for research).

(C) . General requirements applicable to all persons (other than public entities) operating UASs for any purpose other than for recreational purposes or limited educational purposes

Persons operating a UAS on university property for purposes other that recreational purposes or limited educational purposes are required to either obtain a COA from the FAA or comply with all of the provisions of Part 107. To operate a UAS under Part 107, a person must first pass an aeronautical knowledge test at an FAA-approved knowledge testing center; complete an application for a remote pilot certificate (FAA form 8710-13) and submit it to the FAA; and pass a TSA security background check. A person successfully completing these steps will be issued a remote pilot certificate from the FAA and be considered a “remote pilot in command” capable of operating a UAS for non-hobby or non-recreational purposes pursuant to Part 107.

Any person (other than a public entity) operating a UAS on university property for any purpose other than recreational purposes or limited educational purposes must:

(1) Either possess a valid and unexpired remote pilot certificate issued by the FAA, or be under the direct supervision of a remote pilot in command with a valid and unexpired pilot certificate issued by the FAA (provided that the remote pilot in command is available and capable of immediately taking direct control of the UAS at any time during such operation); or possess a valid and unexpired COA issued by the FAA; and

(2) Operate the UAS pursuant to Part 107 or a valid and unexpired COA, and within any limitations set forth in the written permission issued under this rule.

(D) Operation of UASs by university faculty and university students for any purpose other than recreational purposes or limited educational purposes

Any university faculty member or university student wishing to operate a UAS on university property for any purpose other than recreational purposes or limited educational purposes must comply with each of the following requirements:

(1) Submit a request in writing to the associate provost for research:

(a) Outlining the proposed flight schedule and proposed flight activity;

(b) Identifying any person that will be operating a UAS on university property;

(c) Providing the UAS registration number (if applicable);

(d) Providing the manufacturer and model number of the UAS to be operated;

(e) Providing all specifications of the UAS (e.g. weight, maximum range, maximum altitude, whether the UAS has dual controls, whether the UAS has “return home” programming, etc.); and

(f) Indicating whether such UAS operation will involve recording or transmitting visual images.

(2) Provide the associate provost for research with a copy of either:

(a) The remote pilot in commands valid and unexpired remote pilot certificate, and a list of any operational waivers the remote pilot in command has received from the FAA; or

(b) A copy of the valid and unexpired COA.

(3) Obtain the written permission of the associate provost for research as to the time, place, and manner of the proposed UAS operation.

(E) Operation of UASs for other business purposes

Any university employee that is not a university faculty member; all governmental entities, law enforcement agencies, and public safety agencies (collectively, “Public Entities”); and any other person wishing to operate a UAS on university property for compensation, hire, or any other business purpose shall comply with each of the following requirements:

(1) Submit a request in writing to the director of health and safety offices

(a) Outlining the proposed flight schedule and proposed flight activity;

(b) Identifying any person that will be operating a UAS on university property;

(c) Providing the UAS registration number (if applicable);

(d) Providing the manufacturer and model number of the UAS to be operated;

(e) Providing all specifications of the UAS (e.g. weight, maximum range, maximum altitude, whether the UAS has dual controls, whether the UAS has “return home” programming, etc.); and

(f) Indicating whether such UAS operation will involve recording or transmitting visual images; provided, that none of the requirements contained in the immediately preceding sentence will apply to the operation of a UAS by public entities during an emergency.

(2) Provide the director of health and safety offices with a copy of either:

(a) The remote pilot in commands valid and unexpired remote pilot certificate, and a list of any operational waivers the remote pilot in command has received from the FAA; or

(b) A copy of the valid and unexpired COA.

(3) Obtain the written permission of the director of health and safety offices as to the time, place, and manner of the proposed UAS operation.

(F) Sanctions

Any violations of university policies by an individual will be dealt with in accordance with applicable university policies and procedures, which may include disciplinary actions up to and including termination from the university. Legal prohibitions regarding physical presence on campus/trespassing and other legal action may also be pursued against third parties that operate UAS in violation of this rule. Fines or damages incurred by individuals or units that do not comply with this rule will not be paid by the university and will be the responsibility of those persons involved.

Ohio Rule 3341-6-50

Rule 3341-6-50

(A) Policy statement and purpose

The operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) including drones and model aircraft, is regulated by the federal aviation administration (FAA) and relevant state law. Bowling Green state university (BGSU) seeks to permit UAS to be utilized productively in a manner that fully meets institutional, legal, public safety, and ethical responsibilities. Operation of a UAS on or over university property, and the use of university owned UAS, will comply with this policy.

(B) Policy definitions

Unmanned aircraft system (UAS): any remotely operated or controlled aircraft intended to fly within the national airspace system. Includes devices commonly referred to as drones and may also include communications, support, and navigational equipment. FAA regulations apply to all types of UAS regardless of weight or size.

University property: buildings, grounds, and land that are owned by Bowling Green state university, or controlled by Bowling Green state university via lease or other contractual agreement.

Certificate of authorization (COA) or waiver: a certificate granted to an individual or entity by the FAA for a specific aircraft for a specific activity for a specific location.

333 Exemption: an FAA exemption under section 333 of the Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 which grants an individual or entity the ability to operate a UAS for civil and non-governmental purposes and activities, other than recreational and hobbyist activity.

Model aircraft: an unmanned aircraft system that is

1) flown for hobby or recreational purposes as defined in the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012;
2) capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere; and

3) flown within visual line of sight of the operator.

Operator: pilot or individual who is controlling, maneuvering, or commanding a UAS.

(C) Policy scope

This policy applies to:

(1) Employees and students operating UAS in any location as part of their university employment or as part of university academic/research program;

(2) The operation by any person of UAS on or above BGSU property;

(3) The purchase and operation of UAS with funding through the university, including grants and foundation accounts; and

(4) The hiring or contracting for any UAS services with an outside vendor

This policy does not apply to use by law enforcement in the scope of their duties.

(D) Policy

UAS use for the purpose of this policy will fall into one of three categories as defined by the FAA: government use (BGSU-owned), commercial use (contracted vendor), and private/hobbyist use (on or above university property). Each category requires the UAS operator to follow different procedures before UAS use. The following requirements govern the use of UAS within the scope identified in this policy.

(1) Any individual or group, including employees, students and contracted vendors, seeking to operate a UAS on university property, or anywhere on behalf of BGSU, is responsible for obtaining all required documentation and approvals for compliance with FAA regulations, federal and state laws, and university policies.

(2) The university’s office of risk management, in conjunction with BGSU police, shall be responsible for university policy, approvals, and instructions regarding UAS use on or above university property, and for UAS use pursuant to university employment and academic/research programs.

(3) Private/hobbyist use of UAS and model aircraft on or above university property is not permitted.

(4) Government and commercial use on or above university property, or elsewhere on behalf of the university, must be approved in advance through the office of risk management to ensure compliance and insurance coverage.

(5) UAS shall be operated in a responsible manner and shall not create a hazard to university property, the university community, or the public at any time.

(6) In operating a UAS for purposes of recording or transmitting visual images, operators must take all reasonable measures to avoid violations of areas normally considered private, and the unauthorized interception or recordings of images, electronic communications, and electronic data.

(E) Violation and accountability

Individuals that violate this policy will be subject to corrective action procedures as defined in the appropriate employee handbook, collective bargaining agreement, student code of conduct, federal, state, and local laws, or as per the Revised Code.

Ohio Rule 3342-5-12.16

Rule 3342-5-12.16

(A) Purpose. This policy supports the safety and privacy of the university community by establishing restrictions and enabling the enforcement of applicable rules and regulations controlling the use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), popularly referred to as drones, and model aircraft. It applies to all university employees and students, and to third parties operating on university grounds.

(B) Definitions. For the purposes of this policy, the following definitions will apply:

(1) Model aircraft. The term “model aircraft” means an unmanned aircraft that is:

(a) capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere;

(b) flown within visual line of sight of the person operating the aircraft; and

(c) flown for hobby or recreational purposes.

(2) Operator. The term “operator” means the person who is controlling, maneuvering, or commanding the aircraft.

(3) Small unmanned aerial vehicle. The term “small unmanned aerial vehicle” means an unmanned aerial vehicle weighing less than fifty-five pounds.

(4) Unmanned aerial vehicle. The term “unmanned aerial vehicle” means an aircraft that is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

(5) Unmanned aircraft system (UAS). The term “unmanned aircraft system” means an unmanned aerial vehicle and associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aerial vehicle) that are required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system.

(C) Scope. This policy applies to any UAS or model aircraft operated by: (1) university employees and students operating in any location as part of their university employment, course instruction, or other official university activities; (2) any person or entity operating on or above university property, whether owned or leased. (3) any university department wishing to rent, lease, or purchase a UAS for university business or educational purposes, or is contracting with a third party to provide such services.

(D) Operating requirements.

(1) All operation of UAS or model aircraft by university community members, or by third parties on or above university property, must comply with FAA regulations and local, state, and federal laws regarding use of UAS. Any operation or use that violates such regulations or laws is prohibited. It is the responsibility of the operator to adhere to all relevant laws and regulations, including relevant university polices and procedures.

(a) All operators of UAS, also commonly referred to as the pilot in control or “PIC,” must hold valid, unexpired registration with the FAA, unless otherwise exempt from such registration.

(b) PIC shall provide any and all notifications as required by FAA regulations and/or university policies and procedures prior to the commencement of flight operations. Such notification may including, but are not limited to:

(i) Notification as may be required by the FAA to all airports within a 5-mile radius of the intended area of operation; and

(ii) Notification to the department of public safety prior to flight operations on the Kent campus when an exception is granted in accordance with paragraph (F) of this rule.

(2) Aircraft may not exceed the size and weight specifications established by the University.

(3) UAS operations on or above university property are only permitted in areas designated and approved by the office of risk management and compliance, unless an exception is granted in accordance with paragraph (F) of this rule. Such designated areas shall be posted in a publicly assessable manner.

(4) All operators of UAS must minimize risks to other aircraft and people and property on the ground. If such risks cannot be effectively minimized, then any such operation under this policy is prohibited.

(a) All operators must stay within a line of sight of the UAS.

(b) The UAS must remain at least fifty feet away from any student walkway or path.

(c) The UAS must remain at least two hundred feet from any building or structure on university property.

(d) The UAS must remain at least one hundred feet away from parking lots or roadways.

(e) All operators are prohibited from any UAS operations on or above Kent state university airport property and the Dix stadium sports complex.

(5) UAS or model aircraft shall not be used to monitor or record sensitive institutional or personal information.

(6) UAS and model aircraft shall not be used to monitor or record an area where there is a reasonable expectation of privacy in accordance with accepted social norms.

(E) Compliance and enforcement. The office of risk management and compliance is responsible for the administration of this policy, in coordination with other university departments and resources as necessary. The department of public safety is responsible for enforcement of this policy to the extent that such enforcement is related to safety and security.

(1) Persons operating UAS or model aircraft on campus in violation of this policy are trespassers and may be subject to administrative or legal action including, but not limited to, being removed from campus and receiving a written directive to remain off campus.

(2) Contractors and vendors shall comply with this policy and associated procedures. The contracting university department shall be responsible for ensuring contractors and vendors are aware of this compliance obligation.

(3) Student violations may be addressed in accordance with the student code of conduct provided for in rules 3342-4-02 and 3342-4-02.1 of the Administrative Code, as well as other applicable policies, and may include sanctions up to and including suspension or dismissal.

(4) Employee violations may be resolved in accordance with university policies, including sanctions up to and including termination.

(5) Violators of local, state, and federal laws and regulations may be referred to the appropriate law enforcement agencies.

(F) Implementation. The senior vice president for finance and administration, or designee, is responsible for the adoption of written procedures necessary for the effective administration and implementation of UAS activities at Kent state university. Any exception to this rule or any written procedures regarding UAS must be approved by the senior vice president for finance and administration.

Ohio Rule 3356-4-44

Rule 3356-4-44

(A) Policy statement. The operation of unmanned aircraft systems (“UAS”), including drones and model aircraft, is regulated by the federal aviation administration (“FAA”) and relevant state law. Youngstown state university (“university”) seeks to permit UAS’s to be utilized productively in a manner that fully meets institutional, legal, public safety, and ethical responsibilities.

(B) Purpose. To provide direction to anyone seeking to operate a UAS or model aircraft on or above university property or as part of university employment or university activities.

(C) Scope. This policy applies to:

(1) Employees, students, and student groups operating UAS’s in any location as part of their university employment or as part of university activities;

(2) The operation by any person of UAS’s or model aircraft on or above Youngstown state university property;

(3) The purchase of UAS’s with funding through the university, including university accounts, grants, or Youngstown state university foundation accounts; and

(4) The hiring or contracting for any UAS services by a university department, office, or unit.

(D) Definitions.

(1) “University property.” Buildings, grounds, and land that are owned, leased, licensed or otherwise controlled by the university, including but not limited to any university air rights recognized by federal or state law.

(2) “Unmanned aircraft system (UAS), unmanned aircraft (UA), or drone.” Any unmanned aerial vehicle and all of the associated support equipment, control station, data links, telemetry, communications, and equipment necessary to operate the unmanned aerial vehicle from a distance of more than one foot via tether or remote control, including but not limited to drones, planes, model aircraft, helicopters, blimps, balloons, or kites. For purposes of this policy, collectively referred to as UAS.

(3) “Certificate of authorization (COA) or waiver.” An authorization issued by the air traffic organization (“ATO”) of the FAA to an operator for a specific UAS activity. A certificate of authorization may contain provisions or limitations to ensure the UAS can operate safely with other airspace users.

(4) “333 exemption.” An FAA exemption based on section 333 of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (“FMRA”) which grants the secretary of transportation the authority to determine whether an airworthiness certificate is required for a UAS to operate safely in the national airspace system.

(5) “Model aircraft.” Equipment used only for hobby and recreation purposes and not for commercial purposes.

(6) “Operator.” The pilot or individual who is controlling, maneuvering, or commanding a drone, unmanned aircraft, unmanned aircraft system, or model aircraft.

(E) Procedures.

(1) Any individual or group, including university employees, students and student groups, seeking to operate a model aircraft or UAS on university property is responsible for obtaining all required documentation and approvals for compliance with FAA regulations, state and federal laws and university policies. This policy applies to YSU operations both on and off campus.

(2) The university’s office of environmental and occupational health and safety (“EOHS”) shall be responsible for university procedures, approvals, and instructions regarding UAS and model aircraft operation on university property and for UAS operation pursuant to university employment or university activities. Operators should contact EOHS for applicable forms and procedures.

a. Operator must request prior approval from the EOHS at least two weeks in advance of the proposed use of the UAS using the YSU UAS (drone) use application. Approval will require submission of a flight plan, including date, time, and duration of flight, as well as the operational area.

b. Operator must possess a copy of the approved YSU UAS operations application at all times during flight activity and present to YSUPD or university representatives upon request.

c. If required, operator must obtain and provide a copy of the FAA authorization to operate a UAS. Instructions for seeking FAA approval and safe operation information are available at www.faa.org/uas and knowbeforeyoufly.org.

d. UAS must only be operated by an employee as part of their employment or student as part of an academic/research program.

(3) Any use of UAS or model aircraft over university property other than by university students, employees, or vendors, as part of university employment or activities, is only allowed after receiving written approval from the EOHS, and is only permitted pursuant to a written agreement which holds the university harmless from any resulting claims or harm to individuals and damage to university property and provides proof of insurance as required by EOHS.

(4) If UAS’s are being used to obtain photos, video, or sound for non university commercial purposes, university commercial use policies must also be followed. In addition to all other requirements, permission for such use must be granted in writing from the office of marketing and communications.

(5) UAS’s shall be operated in a responsible manner and shall not create a hazard to university owned or controlled property, the university community, or the public at any time, and shall not be operated in a way that disrupts instruction or unduly affects the environment of people in or passing through a common space, those working or studying within a building, or those entering, exiting or otherwise making their way about a facility.

(a) UAS may not operate over areas of assembly, stadium, or populated areas without specific, prior approval from EOHS.

(6) In operating a UAS for purposes of recording or transmitting visual images, operators must take all reasonable measures to avoid violations of areas normally considered private and the unauthorized interception or recording of images, electronic communications and electronic data.

(7) Any person who observes the use of any UAS or model aircraft on university property should immediately notify the university police department at 330-941-3527.

(8) UAS purchase must be coordinated with YSU procurement to ensure purchasing compliance, compliance with export controls, and weight and wingspan limits for insurance coverage.

(9) YSU-owned UAS must be securely stored when not in use and a checkout log maintained when UAS is in use.

(10) Because the YSU campus is near the Youngstown/Warren regional airport, notification may be required.

(F) Prohibited uses.

(1) UAS’s and model aircraft shall not be used to monitor or record areas where there is a reasonable expectation of privacy in accordance with university policy and social norms. These areas include but are not limited to restrooms, locker rooms, individual residential rooms, changing or dressing rooms, and healthcare rooms.

(2) UAS’s and model aircraft shall not be used to monitor the inside of university facilities, including but not limited to campus daycare facilities.

(3) UAS’s and model aircraft shall not be used to monitor or record sensitive or personal information that may be found, for example, in an individual’s workspaces, on computer, or other electronic displays.

(G) Violations.

(1) Any violations of this policy will be dealt with in accordance with applicable university policies and procedures, which may include disciplinary actions up to and including termination from the university for employees and sanctions for students up to and including expulsion from the university.

(2) Legal prohibitions regarding physical presence on campus, such as trespass, and other legal action may also be pursued against third parties that operate a UAS or model aircraft in violation of this policy.

(3) Fines or damages incurred by individuals or units that do not comply with this policy will not be paid by the university and will be the responsibility of those persons involved.

Ohio Rule 3364-61-14

Rule 3364-61-14

(A) Policy statement

All operation and use of unmanned aircraft systems (“UAS”) and model aircraft on or above university property must be pre-approved by the university and in compliance with the rules of operation set forth below, including associated procedures promulgated pursuant to the authority of this rule. See section (G) for link to form requesting pre-approval.

(B) Purpose of policy

(1) Reasonably mitigate public safety risks to individuals and organizations potentially affected by “UAS” or model aircraft operations;

(2) Ensure compliance with federal, state, and local laws and university liability insurance provisions; and

(3) Meet institutional regulations and ethical responsibilities with respect to privacy.

(C) Scope Any individual who operates or wishes to operate “UAS” or model aircraft on or above university property.

(D) Operation All operation and use of unmanned aircraft systems (“UAS”) and model aircraft on or above university property must comply with federal aviation administration (“FAA”) regulations, and any local, state and federal laws. Any operation or use violating such regulations and laws is prohibited. It is the responsibility of the operator to ensure compliance with all applicable laws.

(E) Enforcement and penalties

(1) Any person operating a “UAS” or model aircraft on university property without an approved request form; in violation of their “FAA” approved status or any federal, state or local law; or, in violation of university rules or policies, may be advised by university police or any university representative with control or jurisdiction over the activity to cease operation immediately until appropriate approval is received.

(2) Student violations may be addressed in accordance with the code of student conduct, as well as other applicable rules and policies and may include sanctions, up to and including expulsion.

(3) Employee violations may be resolved in accordance with university disciplinary rules and policies, up to and including termination.

(4) Any violators of local, state and federal laws and regulations may be addressed by appropriate law enforcement or “FAA” authorities.

(F) Definitions

(1) University property: buildings, grounds and land owned by the university of Toledo or controlled by the university of Toledo via leases or other formal contractual arrangements for university activities.

(2) Unmanned aircraft system (“UAS”): “UAS” is also known as unmanned aerial vehicle (“UAV”) or may be characterized as a drone. UAS is an unmanned aircraft and all of the associated support equipment, control station, data links, telemetry, communications and navigations equipment, etc. necessary to operate the unmanned aircraft safely in the national airspace system.

Amberley Village Chapter 131

Amberley Village Chapter 131

131.44 OPERATING MODEL AIRCRAFT.

No person, without privilege to do so, shall operate model aircraft on or over village property. The term MODEL AIRCRAFT means any unmanned object that is powered (such as with a battery, stored energy, an engine, or propellants), capable of sustained flight, and operated from a remote source. Examples of model aircraft include radio-controlled planes or helicopters, model planes, drones, or hobby or recreational aircraft.

131.99 PENALTY.

(A) Except as otherwise provided herein, whoever violates any provision of this chapter shall be fined not more than $100 for each such offense.

(B) Whoever violates any rule established under § 131.43 shall be guilty of a minor misdemeanor on the first offense. Any person who continues to violate any rule after being directed to cease the violation or who has been previously convicted of violating any rule under § 131.43 within one year of being cited for a second violation, shall, upon conviction, be guilty of a misdemeanor of the fourth degree.

Anderson Park District Rules

Anderson Park District

Before you fly a drone or remote-controlled aircraft, make sure you know where you are allowed to operate it.

In the Anderson Parks, no person can use or operate any radio-controlled or other remotely-controlled aircraft, including drones and other unmanned aerial vehicles, or any other similar device in any park or facility without specific written permission from the Executive Director.

The flight of these aircrafts over park district property — especially during events and over areas that contain significant numbers of people — constitutes a potential safety hazard to the users of the parks. The Park Board wishes to minimize this hazard by regulating the use of these aircrafts.

To learn more about safe and responsible operations of unmanned aircraft systems, drone enthusiasts may visit knowbeforeyoufly.org.

Aurora Chapter 622

Aurora Chapter 622

622.01 OPERATION.

(a) No person shall operate, within the City limits of Aurora, any model aircraft, unmanned aircraft, drone, or other unmanned aerial vehicle (collectively, “UAVs”) which is controlled by radio, electronic, or similar free flight operation, by a person, computer, or machine on the ground or otherwise, in a manner such that the UAV flies within 1,000 feet of any of the following:

(1) Public or private school property, without the express written consent of the individual authorized to grant said consent.  This would include all athletic facilities located on school property as well as all school buildings;

(2) All City owned buildings, without the express written consent of the Mayor or Police Chief;

(3) City owned water towers;

(4) Utility power sub stations;

(5) Active crime scenes;

(6) Active fire or accident scenes; and

(7) Cell towers.

(b) In addition to the above, the following shall govern the use of said UAVs:

(1) Sustained operation above any roadway is prohibited where such operation could impair drivers’ line of sight, distract drivers, or come into contact with motor vehicles operating within said roadways;

(2) Operation to capture images of people on private property that would otherwise not be visible without the use of the UAV is prohibited;

(3) Operation before dawn and after dusk is prohibited, unless prior authorization has been given by the Chief of Police, or his or her designee; and

(4) No person shall equip any drone with any weapon such as a firearm, explosive device, incendiary device, ballistic knife, knife, zip gun or any other dangerous ordnance as described in Sections 2923.11 or 2923.24 of the Ohio Revised Code or any similar device.

(c) This section shall not prohibit the use of UAVs by any law enforcement agency of the City of Aurora, Ohio or any state or federal law enforcement agency for lawful purposes.

622.99 PENALTY.

(a) Whoever violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree.

Avon Lake Rules

Avon Lake

(9)   Aircraft and other flying apparatus. It shall be unlawful for any person to use a park as a starting or landing field for aircraft, hot air balloons, parachutes, hang gliders, drones or other flying apparatus except as authorized by the Recreation Department.

Bedford Chapter 549

Bedford Chapter 549

549.20 FLYING MODEL AIRCRAFT, UAS, AND DRONES.

(a) No person shall operate, within the city limits of Bedford, any model aircraft, UAS, or drone as defined by Federal or State law which is controlled by radio, electronic, or similar free flight operation, by a person on the ground or otherwise, in a manner that the aircraft flies over or within 400 feet of any of the following without first obtaining express written consent or being an agent, employee or contractor operating in the course of their duty:

(1) Public or private school property, without written expressed consent, such as athletic facilities, school buildings, and transportation facilities;

(2) All city owned buildings and property, without the express written consent of the Safety Director;

(3) Any public utility location such as water, sewer, electric, phone, or gas;

(4) Active crime scenes;

(5) Active fire or accident scenes; and

(6) Communications towers.

(b) Sustained operation above any roadway is prohibited where such operation could impair a driver’s line of sight, distract drivers, or come into contact with motor vehicles operating within said roadways.

(c) Operation to view or capture images of people on private property or to view or capture images of private property that would otherwise not be visible without the use of any model aircraft, UAS, or drone is prohibited. Operation of any model aircraft, UAS, or drone that causes a property owner to believe they or their property is being viewed or imaged or is harassing in nature is prohibited.

(d) Operation before sunrise and after sunset is prohibited.

(e) No person shall equip any model aircraft, UAS, or drone with any weapon such as a firearm, explosive device, incendiary device, ballistic knife, knife, zip gun or any other dangerous ordinance as described in sections 2923.11 or 2923.24 of the Ohio Revised Code or any device that is expressly excepted from the definition of a destructive device pursuant to the “Gun Control Act of 1968,” 82 Stat. 1213, 18 U.S.C. 921(a)(4), as amended, and regulations issued under this act.

(f) Law enforcement officers, including police and fire officers, are exempt as permitted by law when operated in the course of their duty and in emergency situations.

(g) No person shall fly any model aircraft, UAS, or drone which is controlled by radio, electronic, or similar free flight operation, within the city limits of Bedford, without first registering the device with the FAA as required by FAA guidelines. Any person operating any model aircraft, UAS, or drone must have in their possession any required FAA registration certificate for the specific model aircraft, UAS, or drone being operated.

(h) Whoever violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree.

549.99 PENALTY.

(EDITOR’S NOTE: See Section 501.99 for penalties applicable to any misdemeanor classification.)

Cincinnati Parks Rules

Cincinnati Parks

Rule 32 – Flying Apparatus and Motor Propelled Vehicles

Except as expressly set forth in these Regulations, no person shall operate, fly, launch, drive, or use any motor propelled vehicle, or flying apparatus or other vehicle (except motor vehicles driven on roadways designed for that purpose subject to any separate regulation thereof) on or over park property, including but not limited to airplanes, balloons, gliders, hang-gliders, boats, snowmobiles, go-karts, rockets, powered model planes, motorbikes, motorcycles, or automobiles, except with the written permission of the park board and except within such areas as may be designated by the park board and except in compliance with any reasonable safety regulations set by the park board and made a condition of any consent.

Cleveland Chapter 490

Cleveland Chapter 490

490.01 Definitions

As used in this chapter, certain words and terms are defined as follows:

(a) “Unmanned Aircraft” means an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft, weighing more than fifty-five hundredths (0.55) pounds on takeoff, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft.

(b) “Unmanned Aircraft System” or “UAS” means an unmanned aircraft and its associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System.

490.02 Purpose and Intent

This chapter is intended to promote public safety. In consideration of this concern, the city is restricting the use of UAS in certain areas. It is not intended to restrict legitimate hobbyists operating unmanned aircraft systems in compliance with FAA rules and regulations. This chapter is not intended to preempt FAA rules and regulations, but to operate in conjunction with those rules to promote public safety while recognizing the limitations in the FAA’s enforcement capabilities.

490.03 Restrictions

(a) Anyone who launches, operates, or causes to be launched or operated, any unmanned aircraft system within the limits of Cleveland, Ohio, must be able to present, immediately upon request by any member of the police or fire force, a current certificate of aircraft registration issued by the Federal Aviation Administration for the unmanned aircraft system.

(b) No person shall launch, operate, or cause to be launched or operated, any unmanned aircraft system in any airspace within or over:

(1) A five (5) mile radius of Cleveland Hopkins International Airport;

(2) A five (5) mile radius of Burke Lakefront Airport; or

(3) Any area of the City of Cleveland that the Federal Aviation Administration determines to be a restricted area, either by way of a NOTAM, TFR, No Drone Zone, or other means.

(c) Division (b) of this section shall not apply to any person who has previous approval from the FAA to operate a UAS in a restricted area and is complying with all terms and conditions of their approval.

490.99 Violation; Penalties

Whoever violates division (a) of Section 490.03 of this chapter is guilty of a minor misdemeanor. Whoever violates division (b) of Section 490.03 of this chapter is guilty of a misdemeanor of the fourth degree on the first offense, a misdemeanor of the third degree on the second offense, and a misdemeanor of the second degree on the third and any subsequent offense. All violations will be forwarded to the Federal Aviation Administration and reviewed for possible violations of federal civil and criminal statutes. The Department of Public Safety will enforce and ensure compliance with the provisions of this chapter.

Cleveland Metro Parks Rules

Cleveland Metro Parks

Cleveland Metroparks regulates drone use in its parks for the safety and enjoyment of all its guests. Persons may launch, land or operate, or cause to be launched, landed or operated, a drone weighing less than 4.4lbs/2.0kg in airspace within the Park District ONLY IN THE FOLLOWING DESIGNATED AREAS and must

(1) possess a current authorizing certificate issued by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA),

(2) meet a 333 exemption, or

(3) is flying the drone strictly for hobby or recreational use.

Designated areas within the Park District are open fields, in the following locations except during those dates and times of scheduled events:

  • The Polo Fields located in South Chagrin;
  • The Top O’ Ledges in the Hinckley Reservation;
  • Main Street Diamond located in Mill Stream Run Reservation;
  • The fairways of all Cleveland Metroparks golf courses, except Sleepy Hollow or Manakiki, from November 1st through March 15th when the golf course is not open for golf:
    • (1) The operator of the UAS shall not be permitted on the greens or tees at any time.
    • (2) The operator shall not interfere with any non-golf activity that may be occurring on the golf course (e.g., snowshoeing, cross country skiing, etc.)

Even in designated areas, all operators, whether recreational and commercial, must learn and comply with all FAA regulations.  It is not Cleveland Metroparks’ responsibility to inform, train or educate the public about the FAA regulations.

FILMING POLICY

A separate permit must be obtained to conduct a special group event or activity in Cleveland Metroparks including filming requests. Special event/activity requests are evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Requirements will vary depending on size and scope of the event, date, time, location, etc. A permit fee and insurance may be required. The permit fee will vary depending on the event/activity and is nonrefundable.

For additional information or assistance on filming requests, please contact the Manager of Special Events & Experiences at Cleveland Metroparks by mail (3900 Wildlife Way, Cleveland OH 44109, fax (216-661-3312), or phone (216-635-3304) from 8:30am to 4:30pm, Monday – Friday.

 

Cleveland Metroparks Chapter 509

Cleveland Metroparks Chapter 509

509.15 DRONES OR UAS.

No person shall operate a drone or UAS in a manner that recklessly endangers persons, wildlife, or property or in a manner that harasses, disturbs, intimidates, annoys or threatens persons or wildlife.

509.99 PENALTY.

(EDITOR’S NOTE: See Section 501.99 for penalties applicable to any misdemeanor classification.)

Cleveland Metroparks Ordinance Chapter 745

Cleveland Metroparks Ordinance Chapter 745

745.01 – Definitions.

As used in this chapter, certain words and terms are defined as follows:

(a) “Aircraft” means any contrivance invented, used, or designed to navigate, or fly in the air (49 U.S.C. §40102).

(b) “Drone” or “Unmanned Aircraft” (UA) means an aircraft that is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft (P.L. 112-95, Section 331);

(c) “Unmanned Aircraft System” or “UAS” means an unmanned aircraft and associated elements, including communication links and components that control the UA, that are required for the PIC to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system (P.L. 112-95, Section 331).

745.02 – Purpose and Intent.

This chapter is intended to provide direction for the use of UAS in a manner that is consistent with the Park District’s conservation and protection of natural resources and wildlife and in a manner that promotes public safety and enjoyment. In consideration of these principles, the Park District is restricting the use of UAS to specific uses and to specific areas. This chapter is not intended to preempt FAA rules and regulations, but to operate in conjunction with those rules while utilizing its land use authority and its police power proscribed in Chapter 1545 of the Ohio Revised Code.

745.03 – Restrictions.

(a) No person shall launch, land or operate, or cause to be launched, landed or operated, any UAS weighing 4.4lbs/2.2kg or greater in any airspace within the Park District.

(b) No person shall launch, land or operate, or cause to be launched, landed or operated, any UAS weighing less than 4.4lbs/2.2kg in any airspace within the Park District except in designated areas and must possess a current certificate of aircraft registration issued by the FAA for the UAS or is flying the UAS strictly for recreational use.

(c) No person shall launch, operate, or cause to be launched or operated, any UAS in any airspace within or over any area within the Park District that the FAA determines to be a restricted area, either by way of a NOTAM, Temporary Flight Restriction, No Drone Zone, or other means.

(d) Division (b) of this section shall not apply to any person who has previous approval from the FAA to operate a UAS in a restricted area and is complying with all terms and conditions of their approval.

745.04 – Exemption for Park District.

This Chapter shall not apply to any UAS that are operated by the Park District, or its designee, for governmental purposes in compliance with federal laws and regulations and in compliance with Park District policies.

745.99 – Violation; Penalties.

Whoever violates this section shall be fined not more than one hundred fifty dollars ($150.00) for the first offense and not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000) for each subsequent offense.

Crestline Ordinance Chapter 565

Crestline Ordinance Chapter 565

565.01 – Definitions.

(a) “Unmanned aircraft” means an aircraft that is operated without the possibility of human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

(b) “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle” (hereinafter referred to as “UAV”), commonly known as a drone and also referred to as an unpiloted aerial vehicle and a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) by the ICAO, means an UA and associated elements, including communication links, cameras, and components that control the UA that are required for the PIC to operate safely and efficiently in the NAS and can use a geographic positions system (GPS) guided autopilot mechanism.

565.02 – Prohibition.

UAVs that weigh more than 8.8 ounces but less than 55 pounds are prohibited from taking off, flying, or landing in any airspace below Four Hundred (400) feet within the Village Parks, any Village-owned property, any Right-of-Way and/or any easement granted to or otherwise in favor of the Village of Crestline, Ohio, unless otherwise exempt under this Ordinance.

565.03 – Exemptions.

(a) This chapter shall not prohibit the use of UAVs by any law enforcement agency of the Village of Crestline, Ohio, and/or any City, State or Federal government for lawful purposes and in a lawful manner.

(b) This chapter shall not prohibit the use of UAVs by any authorized individual on the property located on parcel number 46-0061104.010., this property is the location of the Eagle Squadron RC Club.

(c) This chapter shall not prohibit the use of UAVs by any individual or business (with the applicant being at least twenty-one (21) years of age at the time of application) who obtains written permission from the Village of Crestline, Ohio, through the Village’s Administrator personally and in writing, prior to operating a UAV within the corporation limits described in Section 565.02, subject to the following conditions:

(1) It shall be the sole discretion of the Village Administrator to grant or deny permission to said individual or business, subject to and in accordance with the requirements set forth in the permit for the same, as amended from time-to-time, which current version is attached hereto, labeled as “Exhibit A” and which is fully-incorporated herein by reference, including but not limited to each applicant being subject to passing a criminal background check as set forth in “Exhibit A”.

(2) Said permission must be obtained by said individual or business wishing to operate a UAV within the corporation limits described in Section 565.02 and/or wishing to land or take off within the corporation limits described in Section 565.02.

(3) The Village of Crestline, Ohio reserves the right to revoke any permission granted to an individual or business for any reason or no reason and at the sole discretion of the Village of Crestline, Ohio, by and through the Village Administrator.

(4) Any individual or business obtaining permission to operate a UAV shall be liable for any and all damages and/or injury caused by him, her, or it in the operation of a UAV within the corporation limits described in Section 565.02.

(5) Said individual or business shall execute a release and indemnity agreement and obtain a written permit at the Village of Crestline, Ohio before said individual or business shall be allowed to operate a UAV as permitted in this Ordinance, in a form similar to the attached “Exhibit B” which is fully-incorporated herein by reference.

(6) Said individual or business shall follow all rules and requirements stated in said written permit.

565.99 – Penalty.

Any person who violates the aforementioned ordinance, requirements and conditions under Section 565.03, is guilty of a minor misdemeanor and may be subject to a fine of one hundred fifty dollars ($150.00) for each violation.

Cuyahoga Heights Ordinance Chapter 650

Cuyahoga Heights Ordinance Chapter 650

650.01 – Definitions.

For the purpose of this chapter, the following definitions shall apply unless the context clearly indicates or requires a different meaning.

(a) “Image” means a record of thermal, infrared, ultraviolet, visible light, or other electromagnetic waves; sound waves; odors; or other physical phenomena which captures conditions existing on or about real property or an individual located on that property.

(b) “Imaging device” means a mechanical, digital, or electronic viewing device; still camera; camcorder; motion picture camera; or any other instrument, equipment, or format capable of recording, storing, or transmitting an image.

(c) “Law enforcement agency” means a lawfully established State or local public agency that is responsible for the prevention and detection of crime, local government code enforcement, and the enforcement of penal, traffic, regulatory, game, or controlled substance laws.

(d) “Unmanned aircraft system” or “drone” means any powered aerial vehicle that:

(1) Does not carry a human operator;

(2) Uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift;

(3) Can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely;

(4) Can be expendable or recoverable; and

(5) Can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload.

650.02 – Prohibited.

(a) Unless authorized by the Safety Director, a person or entity shall not operate an UAS in the airspace above or adjacent to any public park, school, municipal building, or any other property owned or used by the Village, the Cuyahoga Heights School District, the City of Cleveland, any provider of public utilities, or any other public entity.

(b) A person or entity shall not use an unmanned aircraft system to record an image of any Village owned property or any privately owned real property or of the owner, tenant, occupant, invitee, or licensee of such property with the intent to conduct surveillance on the individual or property captured in the image in violation of such person’s reasonable expectation of privacy without his or her written consent. For the purposes of this section, a person is presumed to have a reasonable expectation of privacy on his or her privately owned real property if he or she is not observable by persons located at ground level in a place where they have a legal right to be, regardless of whether he or she is observable from the air with the use of an UAS.

(1) This section does not apply to the use of an UAS if:

  1. A law enforcement agency first obtains a search warrant authorizing the use of an UAS.
  2. A law enforcement agency possesses a reasonable suspicion that, under particular circumstances, swift action is needed to prevent imminent danger to life or serious damage to property, to forestall the imminent escape of a suspect or the destruction of evidence, or to achieve purposes including but not limited to the location of a missing person.

650.99 – Penalty.

Whoever violates any provision of this chapter shall be guilty of a minor misdemeanor.

Great Parks of Hamilton County Rules

Great Parks of Hamilton County

Per Great Parks of Hamilton County bylaws, drones may not be flown in any of the parks without written permission from the Chief Executive Officer.

131.16: Model Toys: Engine-powered, self-propelled radio controlled, or free sailing model and toy airplanes, rockets, boats, cars, sirens, or other noisemaking devices are not permitted to be operated within the park district, except in designated areas or with written permission of the Chief Executive Officer. Penalty, see § 130.99

131.17: Aircraft and Hot Air Balloons: No person shall voluntarily bring, land, or cause to descend, or alight upon or adjacent to park land or water, any helicopter, airplane, balloon, parachute, hang glider, or other apparatus for aviation, without specific written permission from the Chief Executive Officer. Penalty, see § 130.99

Great Parks has designated the following seven areas for flying drones. A Private or Commercial Usage Application must be completed and approved before you fly your drone in any designated area. Drone flying is restricted if a nearby shelter, picnic area, soccer field, or ball field is reserved.

Embshoff Woods
Miami Whitewater Forest
Mitchell Memorial Forest
Triple Creek
Sharon Woods
Winton Woods
Woodland Mound

Private recreational drone users are all required to complete a drone usage application.

Private Drone Usage Application

Send application to drones@greatparks.org or mail to:

Great Parks of Hamilton County
Attn: Shawnessee Ference
10245 Winton Road
Cincinnati, Ohio, 45231

Applications require approval from the Chief Executive Officer and may take up to one week to process. For questions, call 513-521-7275.

Drone Usage Regulations

  • The drone policy is nontransferable and an approval letter must be in possession while on park property.
  • Drone owner must follow all Federal FAA guidelines for UAS and Great Parks of Hamilton County bylaws.
  • The holder of the application is liable for any damage to park property.
  • No vehicles are permitted on grass, sidewalks or other park areas not designated as vehicle parking areas.
  • No flying is permitted in nature/wildlife management areas, over people, over animals at Parky’s Farm and Winton Woods Riding Center or areas not open to the public.
  • Great Parks reserves the right to revoke drone approval at its sole discretion.
  • Any misuse of park property or failure to comply with Great Parks of Hamilton County bylaws will result in revocation of drone flying approval and possible expulsion from the property.
  • Park visitors are not to be prevented from using park facilities and amenities as a result of drone flying. Photos or videos must not include any park visitors without their prior permission.
  • A valid Motor Vehicle Permit is required to enter the parks. Cost for residents of Hamilton County: $10 annual/$5 daily; other visitors: $16 annual/$8 daily. Otto Armleder Memorial Park and Fernbank Park are cooperative ventures with the City of Cincinnati; a Motor Vehicle Permit is not required.

Any production company, advertising/publicity firm, filming crew, etc. creating a product for profit must fill out a commercial photography application, provide proof of Federal Aviation Commission (FAA) drone registration, flying certificate, drone insurance and pay a fee.

Commercial Drone Usage Application

Send application, proof of registration, license and insurance to drones@greatparks.org or mail to:

Great Parks of Hamilton County
Attn: Shawnessee Ference
10245 Winton Road
Cincinnati, Ohio, 45231

Applications require approval from the Chief Executive Officer and may take up to one week to process. For questions, call 513-521-7275.

Commercial Drone Permit Fee
$250 per day, per location

Reservations
Commercial drone users who wish to reserve a specific park area or feature, must go about the same registration process, and pay the same reservation fees, as park guests. Reservation fees vary. Contact Guest Services at 513-521-7275.

Payment Options
Drone use fees and reservation fees must be made at least five days prior to the date of flying. We accept Visa, Mastercard, American Express and Discover. You can make checks payable to: Great Parks of Hamilton County, 10245 Winton Road, Cincinnati, Ohio 45231 Attn: Shawnessee Ference.

Refunds Policy
No refunds will be issued for cancellations. If a cancellation is necessary due to inclement weather, a new date may be scheduled.

Drone Insurance
Commercial drone users must have insurance in the amount of $1 million for general liability with Great Parks of Hamilton County named as the Additionally Insured. Email Certificate of Insurance to drones@greatparks.org or mail it to: Great Parks of Hamilton County, 10245 Winton Road, Cincinnati, Ohio, 45231 Attn: Kimbery Whitton.

Security Options
Security can be provided by the Great Parks of Hamilton County Rangers at their current hourly rate with a minimum 48-hour notice. Outside security companies are not permitted. Please contact the Ranger Department at 513-521-3980 for additional information and requirements.

Drone Usage Regulations
The drone policy is nontransferable and an approval letter must be in possession while on park property.

  • Drone owner must follow all FAA guidelines for UAS and Great Parks of Hamilton County bylaws.
  • The holder of the approval letter is liable for any damage to park property.
  • No vehicles are permitted on grass, sidewalks or other park areas not designated as vehicle parking areas.
  • No flying is permitted in nature/wildlife management areas, over people, over animals at Parky’s Farm and Winton Woods Riding Center or areas not open to the public.
  • Great Parks reserves the right to revoke drone approval at its sole discretion.
  • Any misuse of park property or failure to comply with Great Parks of Hamilton County bylaws will result in revocation of drone flying approval and possible expulsion from the property.
  • Park visitors are not to be prevented from using park facilities and amenities as a result of drone flying. Photos or videos must not include any park visitors without their prior permission.
  • Great Parks of Hamilton County, its parks, facilities and signs are not to be identifiable in final product of drone photography or videography. It should be clearly understood that Great Parks of Hamilton County in no way endorses any product or service connected with the commercial drone user.
  • A valid Motor Vehicle Permit is required to enter the parks. Cost for residents of Hamilton County: $10 annual/$5 daily; other visitors: $16 annual/$8 daily. Otto Armleder Memorial Park and Fernbank Park are cooperative ventures with the City of Cincinnati; a Motor Vehicle Permit is not required.

Grove City Chapter 903

Grove City Chapter 903

903.12 ENGINE POWERED MINIATURE MODELS, UAS, AND TOYS.

No mechanical and/or motorized miniature models or toy airplanes, UAS, chemically powered rockets, boats, cars, sirens, or other noise making devices are permitted to be launched, landed, or operated within the confines of a park, except in areas designated by the Director.

Hamilton Chapter 511

Hamilton Chapter 511

511.01 DEFINITIONS.

As used in this chapter:

(a) “Aircraft” means any contrivance invented, used, or designed to navigate, or fly in the air. (49 U.S.C. §40102).

(b) “Unmanned Aircraft” or “UA” means an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft, weighing more than fifty-five hundredths (0.55) pounds on takeoff, including everything that is on board or otherwise attached to the aircraft.

(c) “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle” or “UAV” or “Drone” means a powered, unmanned aircraft or aerial vehicle to which all of the following apply:

(1) The vehicle does not carry a human operator and is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the vehicle.

(2) The vehicle uses aerodynamic forces to provide lift.

(3) The vehicle can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely.

“Unmanned Aerial Vehicle” is commonly referred to as a drone and does not include satellite.

(d) “Unmanned Aircraft System” or “UAS” means an unmanned aircraft and its associated elements (including communication links and the components that control the unmanned aircraft) that are required for the safe and efficient operation of the unmanned aircraft in the NAS.

(e) “Surveillance” means the gathering, without permission and in a manner that is offensive to a reasonable person, of visual images, physical impressions, audio (sound) recordings, data or other information involving the private, personal, business or familiar activities of another person, business or entity, or that otherwise intrudes upon the privacy, solitude or seclusion of another person, business or entity, regardless of whether a physical trespass onto real property owned, leased or otherwise lawfully occupied by such other person, business or other entity, occurs in connection with such surveillance.

511.02 PURPOSE AND INTENT.

This chapter is intended to promote public safety. In consideration of this concern, the City of Hamilton is restricting the use of UAVs or UASs in certain areas. It is not intended to restrict legitimate hobbyists or legal commercial operation of an unmanned aerial vehicle or an unmanned aircraft system in compliance with FAA rules and regulations. This chapter is not intended to preempt FAA rules and regulations, but to operate in conjunction with those rules to promote public safety while recognizing the limitations in the FAA’s enforcement capabilities.

511.03 RESTRICTIONS.

(a) Anyone who launches, operates, or causes to be launched or operated, any unmanned aerial vehicle or unmanned aircraft system within the limits of the Hamilton, Ohio, must be able to present, immediately upon request by any member of the police or fire force, a current Certificate of aircraft registration issued by the Federal Aviation Administration for the unmanned aircraft system, if a Certificate is required by the FAA.

(b) No person shall launch, operate, or cause to be launched or operated, any unmanned aerial vehicle or unmanned aircraft system in any airspace within or over any area of the City of Hamilton that the FAA determines to be a restricted area, either by way of a NOTAM, TFR, No Drone Zone, or other means.

(1) This section shall not apply to any person who has previous approval from the FAA to operate a UAS in a restricted area and is complying with all terms and conditions of their approval.

(c) No person shall launch, operate, or cause to be launched or operated, any UAV or UAS over any property in a manner that causes direct and immediate interference with the use or enjoyment of that property.

(d) No person shall launch, operate, or cause to be launched or operated, any UAV or UAS to invade the privacy of another’s home, office, enclosed space, or the private space of another.

(e) No person shall launch, operate, or cause to be launched or operated, any UAV or UAS in a manner that recklessly, carelessly, or negligently endangers persons, wildlife, or property or in a manner that harasses, disturbs, intimidates, annoys, or threatens persons or wildlife, or creates a public nuisance.

(f) No person shall launch or land an UAV or UAS at any municipal building or any other property owned by the City of Hamilton.

(1) This section shall not apply to public parks or the public right-of-way unless such use is in violation of federal, state, or local law.

(2) This section shall not apply to any person who has been authorized by the Executive Director of Public Safety, Chief of Police, or their designees.

(g) No person or entity shall use an unmanned aircraft system to record audio or an image of any City owned property or any privately owned real property or of the owner, tenant, occupant, invitee, or licensee of such property with the intent to conduct surveillance on the individual or property captured in the image in violation of such person’s reasonable expectation of privacy without his or her written consent.

(h) No person shall use an UAV or UAS over any active emergency scene, without the consent of the Executive Director of Public Safety, Chief of Police, Chief of Fire, their designees, or the commander at the emergency scene. An active emergency scene shall include an active crime scene, a property or location to which the Fire Department or Police Department is responding to an accident or fire (not including a residential fire), or other emergency situation, or a property or location to which Emergency Medical Services is responding to an incident.

(i) No person shall launch, operate, or cause to be launched or operated, any UAV or UAS in violation of a Certificate of Waiver or Authorization issued by the FAA, if so applicable, which Certificate may pertain to operation beyond the line of sight, operation over people, operation at night, or any other category of operation for which a Certificate of Waiver is required.

(j) No person shall launch, operate, or cause to be launched or operated, any unmanned aerial vehicle or unmanned aircraft system in violation of any federal or state law, or any ordinance of the City of Hamilton, Ohio.

511.04 EXEMPTIONS.

(a) This chapter shall not prohibit or restrict the use of UAVs or UASs by any Governmental Agency of the City of Hamilton or any State or Federal Government Agency for lawful purposes and in a lawful manner.

(b) This chapter shall not prohibit or restrict the use of UAVs or UASs by the Hamilton Parks Conservancy, the Hamilton City School District Board of Education, and Hamilton Community Cablevision, commonly referred to as TV Hamilton, when used for normal operations of such entities and in a lawful manner.

511.05 VIOLATION; PENALTIES.

(a) Whoever violates Section 511.03(a) of this Chapter is guilty of a minor misdemeanor on the first offense, a misdemeanor of the fourth degree on the second and any subsequent offense.

(b) Whoever violates Sections 511.03(b)- (j) of this Chapter is guilty of a misdemeanor of the fourth degree on the first offense, a misdemeanor of the third degree on the second offense, and a misdemeanor of the second degree on the third and any subsequent offense. A separate offense shall be deemed committed each day during or on which a violation occurs or continues. The penalty provided herein shall be cumulative of other remedies provided by the law.

(c) All violations may also be reviewed for other possible violations and penalties of City of Hamilton’s ordinances.

(d) All violations may also be forwarded to the FAA and reviewed for possible violations of federal civil and criminal statutes.

McDonald Chapter 509

McDonald Chapter 509

509.12 DRONES; UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES.

(a) As used in this section:

(1) “Unmanned aircraft” means an aircraft, vehicle, or device of any size that is capable of remote-control flight or that is operated without the possibility of human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

(2) “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle” (hereinafter referred to collectively as “UAVs” or individually as a “UAV”), commonly known as a “drone” and also referred to as an unpiloted aerial vehicle and a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), means an UA and associated elements, including without limitation communication links, cameras, and components, controlled autonomously by onboard computers or by the remote control of a pilot on the ground or in another vehicle, or by a geographic positions system (GPS) guided autopilot mechanism.

(b) UAVs are prohibited from flying in any airspace below four hundred (400) feet within or over the corporation limits of the Village of McDonald, Ohio, and from landing and taking off within the corporation limits of the Village of McDonald, Ohio, unless otherwise exempt under this section.

(c) This section shall not prohibit the use of UAVs by any law enforcement agency of the Village of McDonald, Ohio, or any State or Federal government agency for lawful purposes and in a lawful manner.

(d) This section shall not prohibit the use of UAVs by any individual or entity who or which obtains written permission from the Village of McDonald, Ohio, prior to operating a UAV within the corporation limits of the Village of McDonald, Ohio, subject to the following conditions:

(1) An individual or entity must obtain written permission to operate a UAV within and/or to land or take off a UAV within the corporation limits of the Village of McDonald, Ohio. Any individual or entity seeking written permission shall submit a written request to the Mayor, which request identifies the owner of the UAV, identifies the operator of the UAV, states the specific purpose for the operation of the UAV, states the proposed location of the UAV, and states the specific date(s) and time(s) for the proposed operation of the UAV;

(2) The Mayor or the Mayor’s designee may grant or deny permission to said individual or entity, restrict or limit the permission to any degree, scope, by date or by times, and/or impose rules and requirements, all as determined by the Mayor or the Mayor’s designee in his or her sole discretion;

(3) The Village of McDonald, Ohio, reserves the right to revoke any permission granted to an individual or entity for any reason or no reason;

(4) Any individual or entity obtaining written permission to operate a UAV shall be liable for any and all claims or damages caused by or from the operation of a UAV within the Village corporation limits. Said individual or entity shall execute a release and indemnity agreement in the form approved by the Village Solicitor prior to any operation of a UAV; and

(5) Said individual or entity shall follow all restrictions, limitations, rules and/or requirements stated in the written permission.

(e) Any person who violates this section is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first (1st) degree and shall be fined not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000.00) or imprisoned not more than one hundred eighty (180) days, or both, for each offense.

(f) Should any provision, paragraph, sentence, or word of this section be rendered or declared invalid by any final court action in a court of competent jurisdiction or by reason of any preemptive legislation, the remaining provisions, paragraphs, sentences or words of this section as hereby adopted shall remain in full force and effect.

509.99 PENALTY.

(EDITOR’S NOTE: See Section 501.99 for penalties applicable to any misdemeanor classification.)

Metro Parks Rules

Metro Parks

Drone flying for recreational purposes are allowed in all Metro Parks during park hours of operation, with the exception of any of the state Nature Preserves, and only at the discretion of the on-duty Park Rangers. At any time, a Park Ranger may ask you to pause, or to wait until the area is safe to fly your drone, and Metro Parks reserves the right to ask guests to cease any activity that may be unsafe, impact the experience of other visitors or impede park operations. In addition, you are also required to adhere to any FAA regulations regarding drones during your flight.

Prior to flying recreational drones, we ask that you contact our on-duty Park Rangers to check with them regarding safety concerns for wildlife that are sensitive to drones, and other guests, especially during high-volume visitation, special events and summer operations.

Metro Parks does have a designated drone field at Scioto Grove Metro Park (when entering the park turn right at the roundabout, the field is immediately on your right). This field is open to anyone wishing to fly a drone in that area and it is open daily during park hours of operation.

All other drone photography and filming for commercial or media use apply for a permit and be approved by Metro Parks, and first emailed to info@metroparks.net.

Filming: All filming (commercial, student, or otherwise, etc.) must apply for a permit and be approved by Metro Parks, and first emailed to info@metroparks.net.

Photography: Metro Parks does not currently require a permit for personal or commercial (non-media) photography, but all Metro Parks Rules & Regulations must be adhered to while onsite. Please take into consideration that other guests will be in the parks, so please do not block paths or trails.

All other drone photography and filming for commercial or media use apply for a permit and be approved by Metro Parks, and first emailed to info@metroparks.net.

Metro Parks of Butler County Rules

Metro Parks of Butler County

No person shall use or operate a toy or model airplane, helicopter, boat, car, unmanned aerial vehicle (drone), rocket or truck which is powered or operated through the use of electricity, an internal combustion engine, or compressed air in the Park unless that person is doing so within an area designated for such a purpose.

Reynoldsburg Chapter 971

Reynoldsburg Chapter 971

971.17 POWER MODELS, TOY ENGINE UNITS AND DRONES.

(a) No person in or adjacent to a park shall operate any engine powered model or toy airplane or solid fuel rocket, without the written authorization of the Director. Such Director has the discretion of determining whether or not authorization should be given based on the other activities in the area and whether or not the operator has the necessary licensing.

(b) No written authorization shall be given for recreational drone activity in, on, or in the air space above a park owned and operated by the City of Reynoldsburg if such drone is required to be registered with the Federal Aviation Administration under the FAA Reauthorization Act of 2018 (or as may be periodically amended)

(1) If an owner or operator of a recreational drone obtains written authorization as provided in subsection (a) of this section, such owner shall not fly the drone above 400 feet above ground level, outside the visual line of sight for the operator, over any group of people, and not within any controlled airspace.

(2) “Recreational drone activity” shall be defined as the operation of any UA that is operated remotely for the purpose of recreation and not for any pecuniary benefit.

Saint Bernard Chapter 521

Saint Bernard Chapter 521

521.15 DRONES OR UNMANNED AIRCRAFTS SYSTEM.

(a) No person shall operate a drone or UAS in a manner that recklessly endangers persons, wildlife, or property or in a manner that harasses, disturbs, intimidates, annoys or threatens persons or wildlife. Drones or UASs shall be operated in compliance with Federal Aviation Administration Unmanned Aircraft Systems Regulations and Policies.

(b) Anyone who violates this section shall be guilty of a minor misdemeanor.

521.99 PENALTY.

(EDITOR’S NOTE: See Section 501.99 for penalties applicable to any misdemeanor classification.)

Sandusky County Park District Chapter 745

Sandusky County Park District Chapter 745

745.01 DEFINITIONS.

As used in this chapter, certain words and terms are defined as follows:

(a) “Aircraft” means any contrivance invented, used, or designed to navigate, or fly in the air (49 U.S.C. §40102).

(b) “Drone” or “Unmanned Aircraft” (UA) means an aircraft that is operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within or on the aircraft (P.L. 112-95, Section 331);

(c) “Unmanned Aircraft System” or “UAS” means an unmanned aircraft and associated elements, including communication links and components that control the unmanned aircraft, that are required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the national airspace system (P.L. 112-95, Section 331).

745.02 PURPOSE AND INTENT.

This chapter is intended to provide direction for the use of UAS in a manner that is consistent with the Park District’s conservation and protection of natural resources and wildlife and in a manner that promotes public safety and enjoyment. In consideration of these principles, the Park District is restricting the use of UAS to specific uses and to specific areas. This chapter is not intended to preempt FAA rules and regulations, but to operate in conjunction with those rules while utilizing its land use authority and its police power proscribed in Chapter 1545 of the Ohio Revised Code.

745.03 RESTRICTIONS.

(a) No person shall operate a drone or UAS in a manner that recklessly endangers persons, wildlife, or property or in a manner that harasses, disturbs, intimidates, annoys, or threatens persons or wildlife.  Drones or UASs shall be operated in compliance with FAA’s UAS Regulations and Policies.  No drone or UAS are permitted on Park District property unless a special use permit is first obtained by the Director of the Park District.

(b) No person shall launch, land, or operate, or cause to be launched, landed or operated, any UAS weighing more than 4.4lbs/2.2kg in any airspace within the Park District.

(c) No person shall launch, land, or operate, or cause to be launched, landed or operated, any UAS weighing less than 4.4lbs/2.2kg in any airspace within the Park District except in designated areas and must possess a current certificate of aircraft registration issued by the FAA for the UAS or is flying the UAS strictly for hobby or recreational use.

(d) No person shall launch, operate, or cause to be launched or operated, any UAS in any airspace within or over any area within the Park District that the FAA determines to be a restricted area, either by way of a NOTAM, TFR, No Drone Zone, or other means.

(e)   Division (c) of this section shall not apply to any person who has previous approval from the FAA to operate a UAS in a restricted area and is complying with all terms and conditions of their approval.

745.04 EXEMPTION FOR PARK DISTRICT.

This Chapter shall not apply to any UAS that are operated by the Park District, or its designee, for governmental purposes in compliance with federal laws and regulations and in compliance with Park District policies.

Youngstown Chapter 511

Youngstown Chapter 511

511.01 DEFINITIONS.

For the purpose of this Chapter, the following words are defined and shall have the meaning ascribed to them as hereafter set forth:

(a) “Unmanned Aerial” means an aircraft that is operated without the possibility of human intervention from within or on the aircraft.

(b) “Drone” means any UAV whenever the term is used in this Chapter.

(c) “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle” (hereinafter referred to as “UAV”), commonly known as a drone and also referred to an UAV and a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), means an unmanned aircraft and associated elements, including communication links, cameras and components that control the unmanned aircraft that are required for the pilot in command to operate safely and efficiently in the National Airspace System and can use a Geographic Positions System (GPS) guided autopilot mechanism.

(d) “Public Unmanned Aircraft” means a “Drone” used by any Governmental Agency or its representative.

(e) “Commercial Unmanned Aircraft” means any “Drone” used and flown for a profit.

(f) “Recreational Unmanned Aircraft” means any “Drone” flown for sport, recreation or as a hobby.

(g) “Surveillance” means the gathering, without permission and in a manner that is offensive to a reasonable person, of visual images, physical impressions, audio (sound) recordings, data or other information involving the private, personal, business or familiar activities of another person, business or entity, or that otherwise intrudes upon the privacy, solitude or seclusion of another person, business or entity, regardless of whether a physical trespass onto real property owned, leased or otherwise lawfully occupied by such other person, business or other entity, occurs in connection with such surveillance.

511.02 RESTRICTIONS.

(a) No Recreational Drone shall exceed a weight of fifteen pounds (15 lbs).

(b) No Drone shall be equipped with any apparatus such as, but not limited to firearms, missiles, chemicals or lasers.

(c) No Drone shall be operated over any open air assembly unit, school, school yard, hospital, place of worship, prison or police station, without the property owner’s or event organizer’s consent, and subject to any restrictions that the property owner may place on such operations.

(d) No person shall use a drone or other similar device to invade the privacy of another’s home, office, enclosed space or the private space of another.

(e) No drone shall be used to carry contraband or illegal drugs.

(f) No Drone shall be operated within five hundred feet (500 ft) of any water intake facility or any electric generating facility, substation or control center, or within one hundred feet (100 ft.) of any electrical transmission facility, or within twenty-five feet (25 ft.) of any electric distribution facility or of any overhead wire, cable, conveyor of similar equipment for the transmission of sound or signal, or of heat, light or power, or data, upon or along any public way within the City of Youngstown, without the facility or equipment owner’s consent, and subject to any restrictions that the facility or equipment owner may place upon such operation.

(g) No Drone shall be operated over any active emergency scene. An active emergency scene shall include an active crime scene, a property or location to which the Fire Department or Police Department is responding to an accident or fire, or other emergency situation, or a property or location to which E.M.S. is responding to an incident.

(h) No Recreational Drone shall be operated from dusk to dawn or beyond the line of site of the operator.

511.03 EXEMPTIONS, REGISTRATIONS.

(a) This ordinance shall not prohibit or restrict the use of UAV’s by any Governmental Agency of the City of Youngstown, and any State or Federal Government Agency for lawful purposes and in a lawful manner.

(b) Citizens may voluntarily register their drones with the Youngstown Police Department in order to prevent theft and misuse. The Youngstown Police Department shall maintain a log of all registered drones.

511.04 RELATIONSHIPS TO OTHER LAWS.

The Council of the City of Youngstown, Ohio declares that, should any provision, section, paragraph, sentence or word of this ordinance be rendered or declared invalid by any final court action in a court of competent jurisdiction or by reason of any preemptive legislation, the remaining provisions, sections, paragraphs, sentences or words of this ordinance as hereby adopted shall remain in full force and effect.

511.05 UNCONSTITUTIONALITY.

In the event any Section or any part of this Chapter is declared to be unconstitutional, such declaration shall in no way affect the operation of any other Section or part hereof of this Chapter, and the remainder of this Chapter shall remain in full force and effect.

511.99 PENALTY.

Whoever violates any of the provisions of this Chapter is guilty of a misdemeanor of the fourth degree and is subject to prosecution and penalty of not more than two hundred fifty dollars ($250.00) or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both, for each offense. A separate offense shall be deemed committed each day during or on which a violation occurs or continues. The penalty provided herein shall be cumulative of other remedies provided by the law.

University Drone Policies

Bowling Green State University

Miami University

Ohio State University

Ohio State University Airport

University of Akron

University of Cincinnati

Note: This list is just a sample… many more could be added.

Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)

Ohio UAS Center – AAM

2024 – Joby Acquires Facility in Ohio, Begins Hiring to Support Initial Manufacturing Operations

2024 – AAM Multistate Collaborative Headed by JobsOhio and Virginia Aviation Leaders Gains Traction at XPONENTIAL

 

Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of filming a wedding at Blue Hen Falls in Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio, pictured above.

They need you to mention any state laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in, and whether or not you need an airspace authorization, with or without LAANC capability.

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do the state drone laws implicate the First Amendment? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 3

Do the state drone laws implicate the Fourth Amendment? Or involve law enforcement officers obtaining warrants? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 4

Do the state drone laws contain a preemption clause? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Does the state have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 6

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.

 

 

 

License

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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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