80 Greece

Nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating with white. A blue square bearing a white cross appears in the upper hoist-side corner. The cross symbolizes Greek Orthodoxy, the established religion of the country. There is no agreed upon meaning for the nine stripes or for the colors.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

The Parthenon crowns the Acropolis in Athens. The Acropolis is a citadel on a flat, high, rocky outcrop 150 m (490 ft) above sea level and is the highest point in Athens. It preserves a number of ancient structures.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Greece is a member of ICAO, EUROCONTROL, JARUS, EASA, and the EU.
Last updated on June 4, 2024

Government

According to Britannica, Greece is a parliamentary republic. The current constitution, introduced in 1975 following the collapse of the 1967–74 military dictatorship, initially gave considerable powers to the president, but revisions to the constitution in 1986 made presidential powers largely ceremonial. The president, who is the head of state, is elected by the unicameral Hellenic Parliament (Vouli) and may serve two five-year terms.

The prime minister is the head of government and has extensive powers but must be able to command the confidence of the legislative branch. The latter, the unicameral Hellenic Parliament, consists of 300 deputies who are elected to four-year terms by direct universal vote; it has the power to revise the constitution. Voting is compulsory. A distinctive feature of the Greek electoral system has been the practice of incumbent governments amending the electoral law to suit their own political advantage. However, another round of constitutional revisions in 2001 introduced safeguards against political abuses, bringing about greater transparency in political operations.

Reorganized administratively in 2011 according to the so-called Kallikratis Plan, Greece is divided into seven apokentroménes dioikíseis (decentralized administrations), the head of each of which is appointed by the central government. These units are further divided into 13 periféreies (regions), which mirror the 13 geographic diamerismata (regions) that existed under the previous administrative structure. At the next level of local government are the 74 perifereiakés enótites (regional units), the administrative and territorial constituents of parts of the regions. Finally, the most local of these administrative unis are the 325 dímoi (municipalities).

The judiciary is essentially the Roman law system prevalent in continental Europe. The two highest courts are the Supreme Court (Areios Pagos), which deals with civil and criminal cases, and the Council of State (Symvoulion Epikrateias), which is responsible for administration disputes. A Court of State Auditors has jurisdiction in a number of financial matters. A Special Supreme Tribunal deals with disputes over the interpretation of the constitution and checks the validity of parliamentary elections and referenda.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

In Greece, the first organized Authority for the Civil Aviation is established in 1926 and in 1929 the Authority of Transporting- Marine Airports is introduced in the MB Admiralty. Though, the first serious organizational effort takes place in 1931 when both L.5017/31 and L.5100/31 “With reference to the Organization of the Civil Aviation Authority” are promulgated. According to the latest law, the authorities beneath are established:
a) The Central Authority, which is consisted of one and only Authority.
b) The Exterior Authority which comprises both the governmental and the Municipal and Communal airports, The Authority of International Aviation Organizations.
During the years 1946-1948, following an attempt of a substantial reformation, a new organizational schema is modulated. The schema in question is called Governmental Civil Aviation Authority and it is structured in the level of General Authority. (Obligatory Law 970/46, Royal decree 615/46, Law decree 634/48) .
In 1952 a Royal Decree transfers the Governmental Civil Aviation Authority from the Ministry of Aviation to the Ministry of Transports at the level of General Division and it is called from this point onwards, Civil Aviation Authority. The above authority operates, based on the above mentioned Royal Decree up to 1960, when the R.D. 865/60 “about the Organization of Civil Aviation Authority” is promulgated. The latest constitutes the most complete Organization from Civil Aviation Authority’ s affiliation with the Ministry of Transports. The Organization in question, defines first the Authority in two organizational levels – the Central Authority and the Regional Services (a structure which is still in force) and second the composition of Organizational Units. Then, with recent organizational efforts, the functional modernization of the Authority is attempted. (Law decree 4195/61, L. 4464/65, D.L. 169/69).  Law Decree 714/70, which defines two distinct agents, constitutes an effort to reassure both better flexibility and efficiency. The above agents are the following:
a) the section of Air Transports of the Ministry of Transports, competent in Air Traffic Policy, planning and oversight and
b) Civil Aviation Authority, an independent Public Authority
Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority constitutes, according to the L.D. 714/70, as it is transformed by L. 1340/83, Public Authority of the Ministry for Infrastructure, Transport  and Networks. It is under the Minister of  Infrastructure, Transport  and Networks and it is being administered by the Governor and the Deputy Governor. With Law 2338/95 “Contract for the development of the new International Airport of Athens “Eleftherios Venizelos” at Spata”, the first airport under private management was established, while the rest of the airports remain until today, under State’s control.

Airspace

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DroneAware Greece

ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Hellenic AIP – requires login

National Airspace by the Hellenic Republic – Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Greece exercises sovereignty in the air within 10 nautical miles of its coasts (under the Decree of 6 September 1931 (which established territorial sea of 10 nautical miles of its coasts for this specific purpose), in conjunction with Laws 5017/1931, 230/1936 and 1815/1988). Greece, as a sovereign state, chose to exercise its sovereignty in the air within the 10 nautical miles of territorial waters it declared in 1931,  for the purposes of aviation and the control thereof, and within 6 nautical miles at sea (Law 230/1936 and legislative decree 187/1973).

Turkish warplanes, often armed, violate Greek airspace, on a systematic basis, and fly over even inhabited Greek areas, a fact which raises serious security concerns.

Such a conduct on the part of Turkey consists a flagrant violation of Greek airspace and triggers potential “hot incidents”.

Turkey’s claim countering the breadth of Greek national airspace under international law, is groundless for the following reasons:

a) The exercise of sovereignty within 10 nautical miles of territorial waters for aviation purposes is legal, as it does not exceed the 12 nautical miles, up to which limit the outer limit of territorial waters could extend, according to the law of the sea.

b) Greece has published the above legislation.

c) From 1931 and for many decades onwards Turkey accepted the breadth of Greek national airspace at 10 nautical miles without raising any objection or dispute, which qualifies under international law as a tacit legal agreement. The 10-nautical mile status, which has been in force since 1931, when the relevant presidential decree was issued and uniformly implemented, has never triggered any protest as to its legal basis.

Promulgation of the breadth of Greek national airspace by the Hellenic Republic – Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Drone Regulations

Drone laws

Information to visitors concerning UAS (drones) flights in Greece

In Greece, European Union regulations EU 2019/947 and EU 2019/945 are applicable.

EU and Non-EU Residents, visiting Greece, who wish to have answers to any question concerning UAS flights in Greece, may request information using the following email address: info.dagr@hasp.gov.gr

EU Residents For EU Legislation reference visit EASA (FAQ)

For information contact : info.dagr@hasp.gov.gr

For airspace use permissions fill in the attached “APPLICATION FOR UAS FLIGHT ACTIVITY APPROVAL” and also send to : info.dagr@hasp.gov.gr

Non-EU Residents

As a non-EU resident, you are required to register with the National Aviation Authority of the first EU country where you intend to operate. If the first EU country is Greece, to register, apply to: a2.d@hcaa.gov.gr

After your registration, you may request information for UAS activities in Greece by sending an e-mail to: info.dagr@hasp.gov.gr

Non-EU visitors/drone operators in the open category get more information for the following inquiries, in the EASA link:

I am a non-EU visitor / drone operator ‘open’ category

a) As a Non-EU resident visiting Europe if I plan to fly my drone in the ‘open’ category, do I need to register?

b) As a non-EU resident, are my competencies for the ‘open’ category recognized in the EU?

 

Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)

2022 – Hellenic U-space Institute inaugurates first Droneport in South East Europe

2024 – Aria Hotels to construct four eVTOL vertiports in Greece

 

Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone to film the Acropolis in Athens, pictured above.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.

 

 

 

License

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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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