147 Kazakhstan

A gold sun with 32 rays above a soaring golden steppe eagle, both centered on a sky blue background. The hoist side displays a national ornamental pattern “koshkar-muiz” (the horns of the ram) in gold. The blue color is of religious significance to the Turkic peoples of the country, and so symbolizes cultural and ethnic unity. It also represents the endless sky as well as water. The sun, a source of life and energy, exemplifies wealth and plenitude. The sun’s rays are shaped like grain, which is the basis of abundance and prosperity. The eagle has appeared on the flags of Kazakh tribes for centuries and represents freedom, power, and the flight to the future.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

The Hazrat Sultan (Holy Sultan) Mosque in Nur-Sultan is the largest mosque in Central Asia. Built on the bank of the Esil River, the building was constructed between 2009 and 2012 in the classic Islamic style using traditional Kazakh ornaments. At 110, 000 sq m (11 hectares; 27 acres), the mosque can accommodate up to ten thousand worshipers.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Kazakhstan is a member of ICAO.
Last updated on April 19, 2024


According to Britannica, Kazakhstan’s first post-independence constitution was adopted in 1993, replacing the Soviet-era constitution that had been in force since 1978; a new constitution was approved in 1995. The 1995 constitution provided for legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government dominated by a strong executive. Amendments to this constitution in 2017 reduced executive authority and granted the legislature additional checks on executive power. Additional amendments in 2022 further reduced presidential power, including the reestablishment of a constitutional court and the guarantee of greater independence for local leaders.

Kazakhstan is a unitary republic with a bicameral legislature consisting of a Senate and an Assembly (Mazhilis). Working jointly, the two chambers have the authority to amend the constitution, approve the budget, ratify treaties, and declare war; each chamber also has exclusive powers. Legislators serve four-year terms. Two members of the Senate are elected from each oblast and major city by all legislative members of that administrative unit, with the exception of several appointed by the president. Ninety-eight members of the Assembly are elected from population-based constituencies by universal adult suffrage.

The president is the head of state and is directly elected for a maximum of one seven-year term. The president appoints the prime minister and other ministers of the cabinet, as well as the chairperson of the National Security Committee, most of whom are then confirmed by the legislature; the foreign minister, minister of defense, and minister of internal affairs are appointed without requiring legislative consent. The president serves as commander in chief of the armed forces and is responsible for the country’s foreign relations.

The highest judicial body is the Supreme Judicial Council, and there also are a number of lower courts; a Constitutional Court, the members of which are appointed by the president and legislature, reviews constitutional questions. Judges serve life terms and are appointed by the president, with those of the Supreme Court also subject to confirmation by the legislature.

The constitution specifies a number of rights of the citizens of Kazakhstan, including freedom of speech, religion, and movement. Citizens have the right to work, to own property, and to form trade unions. Despite the democratic language in the constitutions of 1993 and 1995, in the early years of independence Kazakhstan became increasingly authoritarian. The country’s first parliamentary elections (1994) were declared illegal by what was then the Constitutional Court. This precipitated the drafting of the 1995 constitution, which expanded the already substantial powers granted to the president by the 1993 constitution. In 2017 a set of amendments reduced the role of the presidency and granted greater authority to the parliament. Amendments enacted in 2022 also advanced the independence of the parliament and the judiciary from the presidency.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

The state institution “Civil Aviation Committee of the Ministry of industry and infrastructure development of the Republic of Kazakhstan” is a Department of the Ministry of industry and infrastructure development of the Republic of Kazakhstan that performs regulatory, implementation and control functions, as well as participates in the implementation of the Ministry’s strategic functions in the field of civil aviation.


SkyVectorGoogle MapsADS-B Exchange

ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Kazakhstan AIP

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Drone Regulations

Drone Laws

Specific documents

Kazakhstan has introduced a registering drone procedure

The Aviation Administration of Kazakhstan keeps records of drones in accordance with the State Registration Civil Aircraft Rules of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Unmanned aerial vehicles equipped with a maximum take-off weight of 1.5 kg and unmanned aerial vehicles operating in the “specific” category with a maximum take-off weight of 0.25 kg are subject to approval.

Persons, purchasing UAVs must submit an application for registration with the following documents attached in accordance with the State Registration Civil Aircraft Rules of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In case of UAV’s registration, the Aviation Administration of Kazakhstan will issue a certificate of registration for 5 years or the lease agreement validity term.

When deregistering an UAV, the applicant submits an application for deregistering with the following documents attached in accordance with the above-mentioned Rules. If the submitted documents comply, the Aviation Administration of Kazakhstan issues a certificate on the deregistration of the UAV.

The deadline for UAV’s registration and deregistration is 30 working days. Refusal to issue a registration certificate is provided in writing within 15 working days from the date of receipt. When the identified deficiencies have been eliminated, the applicant have to re-register an UAV in the Aviation Administration of Kazakhstan.

In January this year, the Operation Drone Rules in the airspace of the Republic of Kazakhstan have been approved. UAVs will be operated after being registered with the competent civil aviation authority, except for UAVs that are registered in the competent state aviation authority. Currently, 279 unmanned aerial vehicles are registered in Kazakhstan.


Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)


Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone to film the Mosque, pictured above.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.





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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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