11 Chile

Two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red. A blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band. The square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor. Blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red represents the blood spilled to achieve independence.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of Wikipedia

Google Earth

Located in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, Easter Island acquired its name from Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen who landed there on Easter Sunday 1722, but to the indigenous people of the island it is Rapa Nui. The island is known the world over for the nearly 1,000 statues (moai) such as these pictured, created by the Polynesian people who settled there around A.D. 300. What/who exactly the statues represent remains a mystery. In 1888, Chile annexed the island and in 1996 the Rapa Nui people were granted Chilean citizenship. In 2007, the island gained the constitutional status of “special territory.” In 1995, UNESCO named Easter Island a World Heritage Site. Easter Island holds the distinction of being the most remote inhabited island in the world.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Chile is a member of ICAO.
Last updated on April 5, 2024


According to Britannica, the Republic of Chile, inaugurated in 1821, has had a long history of representative democracy, with only a few short-lived exceptions. Historically, Chile has been renowned for its political freedom. From September 1973 to March 1990, however, a military junta headed by Gen. Augusto Pinochet Ugarte presided over the longest period of authoritarian dictatorship in Chilean history. The country is governed in accordance with the constitution of 1981, approved by a plebiscite called by General Pinochet to change the constitution of 1925. The 1981 document placed the administration of the state into the hands of the president and permitted Pinochet to hold office until 1990. The president appoints the state ministers. In 2004 a constitutional amendment reduced the presidential term to four years (from six years, as designated in 1994) and eliminated lifetime senatorial seats.

The bicameral National Congress was dissolved at the time of the 1973 coup, after which legislative functions were carried on by the junta, assisted by legislative commissions. The 1981 constitution allows for a bicameral legislature consisting of an upper chamber, or Senado, and a lower chamber of representatives, or Cámara de Diputados, to be elected by direct popular vote. These two bodies remained in recess until the elections of December 1989.

The justices and prosecutors of the Supreme Court and the Courts of Appeals are appointed by the president from a list of nominees proposed by the Supreme Court. Judges are career functionaries of the Ministry of Justice. The composition of the lower courts is similarly determined.

Local government is carried on through 15 administrative regions, including the metropolitan region of Santiago. The regions are divided into provinces, which in turn are divided into communes. The president appoints the intendents (intendentes) who head the administrations of the regions. The intendents govern with the aid of a regional council, which may include the governors of the constituent provinces and representatives of various other private and public institutions within the region. The provincial governors, like the intendents, serve at the sole pleasure of the president. The communes are administered by a municipal corporation (municipalidad) composed of a mayor (alcalde) and a communal council. The mayor is appointed by the regional council from a list of three candidates submitted by the communal council; in the case of some larger urban centers, the mayor is appointed directly by the president. The councilmen (regidores) are elected by popular vote for four-year terms.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

The mission of the DGAC, Chile’s Civil Aviation Authority, is to regulate and supervise the aerial activity that takes place within the airspace controlled by Chile and that carried out abroad by national airline companies: develop the aeronautical infrastructure within the scope of its competence and provide excellent services in air navigation, meteorology, airports and operational security, with the purpose of guaranteeing the operation of the Aeronautical System in a safe and efficient manner.


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ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Chile Airspace

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Drone Regulations

RPAS or drones that do not meet the requirements indicated in DAN 151.005 must be registered. However, your registration voucher will indicate that your operations will be limited according to DAN 91.102.

For the flight of an RPAS or drone in Chile, depending on the type of operation and according to the purpose of use, an interested party in flying RPA must comply with the requirements and procedures established by the Aeronautical Regulation  DAN 151  if they wish to carry out operations for matters of public interest in populated areas, or those established by the Aeronautical Regulation  DAN 91  to carry out operations over unpopulated areas.


In accordance with the DAN 119 aeronautical regulations, all operators that carry out aerial work with RPA/Drones, such as photography, fumigation or others indicated in DAN 137: Aerial Work, must become an airline company and therefore, have an Air Operator Certificate (AOC).

For the above, they must abide by what is specified in DAN 119, which is related to the certification of companies that opt ​​for the AOC, and which also applies to any operator, national or foreign, that wishes to perform services with remotely piloted aircraft. RPA/Drones.

To specify the above, they must initiate the corresponding procedure indicated in DAN 119.5, which indicates that the applicant for an AOC must initiate the certification process through a Letter of Intent to form an airline, addressed to the DGAC and that consider the following:

– Name or business name and RUT.

– Commercial address.

– Location of the Main Base, (if applicable).

– Legal representative.

– Type of Air Operation proposed according to DAN 137 aerial work.

– Type of Aircraft(s).

Due to this regulatory requirement, the DGAC suspends the delivery of operating authorizations on a case-by-case basis for those companies (individuals or entities) that wish to carry out aerial work and do not have an AOC.

For those operators who request to obtain the Air Operator Certificate, the Operations Sub department of the DGAC will contact the applicants to arrange an informative meeting for the formation of the company, in which they must formally present the desired project, an instance in which The DGAC will explain in detail the process that must be carried out.

DAN 151 Translated into English by Google


Translations of any materials into English are intended solely as a convenience to the public and are not legally binding. The author has merely attempted to provide a Google translation of the original material to English for convenience. Due to the nuances in translating to a foreign language, several differences may exist so before using for any work or pleasure please have the document translated by a professional service!


DAN 151




A remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), for the purposes of this standard, is one designed to operate without a pilot on board, capable of sustaining itself in remotely piloted flight by means of control through electronic systems.

Since 1944, when the Chicago Convention was signed, the aeronautical community had already expressed concern about “Unmanned Aircraft”, which from that date began to have great development in the military field, today fulfilling multiple missions in various war scenarios.

In the civil sphere, the use of RPAS is seen as a great opportunity to carry out functions in various matters, becoming a very practical tool for public interest service tasks, such as, for example, quickly capturing news of relevance to the country, border control, and other activities such as inspection of electrical transmission lines, detection of forest fires, control of toxic spills and pollution control, surveillance of volcanic eruptions, fishing prospecting, geodesic, photography, and filming from height among others.

Given these new scenarios, the General Directorate of Civil Aeronautics (DGAC) has understood the importance of allowing the operation of this type of aircraft, particularly in services of public interest, and also regulating the operations of these aircraft in Chilean airspace, to safely conduct in conjunction with manned aircraft to provide an adequate margin of safety.


Civil aviation has so far been based on the notion that a pilot directs the aircraft from within itself and, very often, with passengers on board. Removing the pilot from the aircraft raises important technical and operational issues, the magnitude of which is being actively explored in the global aviation community.

The safe integration of RPAS in non-segregated airspace will be an ongoing activity in which many interested participants will contribute with their experience and knowledge on various topics such as: licensing and medical qualification of RPA crew; technologies for detect and avoid systems; frequency spectrums (including their protection from unintentional or unlawful interference); separation standards from other aircraft; design standards; and the development of a robust regulatory framework.

ICAO’s objective in dealing with unmanned aviation is to provide the essential international regulatory framework through Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs), supported by Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) and guidance material to strengthen the normal operation of RPAS around the world in a safe, harmonized and smooth manner comparable to those of manned operations. For this reason and given the complexity of this task, ICAO anticipates that no earlier than 2018, an international RPAS operation regulation could be available for consultation by the States.


The Regional Safety Oversight Cooperation System (SRVSOP) is a regional safety oversight organization established in 1998 between ICAO and the Latin American Civil Aviation Commission (CLAC), to promote, in accordance with ICAO, the adoption of harmonized regulations and procedures by its member States. In this context, various Latin American Regulations (LAR) have been developed with the purpose of achieving such standardization.

Based on the foregoing and aware of the massive requirements in the Member States by users regarding the use of RPAS, the SRVSOP has initiated a study on the most important and necessary aspects to consider in a standard that allows the operation of these aircraft, to prevent operational safety from being affected. This organization expects to present the first drafts of LAR regulations to the member states in July 2015.


The DGAC understands the need to issue a rule that regulates the activity of the RPA, given that in fact they are being carried out today. For this reason, it has decided to publish this rule to temporarily authorize the operation of RPA, which constitute matters of public interest, such as:

(a) Obtaining images or information on events of public connotation with the purpose of disseminating them through the media.

(b) Execution of support activities in relation to disasters or emergencies caused by nature or by the action of the human being.

(c) Compliance with the legal functions of any body of the State Administration.

(d) Other situations of a similar nature in terms of the public interest involved, that the DGAC qualifies on the basis of the safety of the operation.

For this reason, this first Standard has been prepared with well-defined objectives and that is oriented solely to matters of public interest, taking care of the safety of people and their property in operations that take place in populated places, which complements the DAN 91 “Rules from air”.

This regulation is of a transitory nature and may be modified when the ICAO or SRVSOP regulations that are in preparation or as a result of the experience obtained from their application are published.



The terms and expressions used in this Aeronautical Standard shall have the meaning indicated below:


Aircraft that does not have a pilot at the controls on board.


Areas in which there are urban centers, settlements of people for housing or work purposes, or in which activities are carried out that call for the agglomeration of people outdoors.


(a) Obtaining images or information on events of public connotation with the purpose of disseminating them through the media.

(b) Execution of support activities in relation to disasters or emergencies caused by nature or by the action of the human being.

(c) Compliance with the legal functions of any body of the State Administration.

(d) Other situations of a similar nature in terms of the public interest involved, that the DGAC qualifies on the basis of the safety of the operation.

NOTAM (Notice To Airmen)

Notice distributed by means of telecommunications that contains information regarding the establishment, condition or modification of any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential for the personnel in charge of flight operations.

This information is available on the institutional website/services online/ IFIS and/or at the ARO offices at the aerodromes.


Operation in which the remote pilot maintains direct visual contact with the aircraft to direct its flight and satisfy separation and collision avoidance responsibilities.


Operation with adequate information about the environment in which the RPA is flying to provide the remote pilot with sufficient situational awareness to allow safe flight of the RPA.


Airspace of defined dimensions in which dangerous activities for the flight of aircraft can be deployed at certain times.

Published by the DGAC in the AIP Chile and available on the institutional website /services online/ IFIS.


Airspace of defined dimensions over the national territory, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited for reasons of national security or of a military nature.

Published by the DGAC in the AIP Chile and available on the institutional website /online services/ IFIS.


Airspace of defined dimensions over the national territory, within which the flight and landing of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain specified conditions, for reasons of a military or national security nature.

These areas are published by the DGAC in the AIP Chile available on the institutional website /services online/ IFIS;


The provisions of this Aeronautical Standard shall apply without prejudice to the provisions of the Aeronautical Standard DAN 91 “Rules of the Air” in what is pertinent and specifically to any natural or legal person who performs or intends to perform operations with an RPA over populated areas. in a matter of public interest.


(a) The maximum takeoff weight of the RPA must be up to nine (9) kilos including accessories, but without considering the weight of the emergency parachute.

(b) The RPA must have been built or assembled from a factory kit and have technical and operating instructions.

(c) The RPA must have the manufacturer’s serial number or if it does not have this number, the owner must record the registration number issued by the DGAC on the RPA.

(d) The RPA must have an emergency parachute during its operation.

(e) The RPA must have the ability to be manually controlled.



(a) Any natural or legal person who wishes to carry out operations with RPA, in accordance with this rule, must previously obtain an authorization from the DGAC, in accordance with the form indicated in Appendix “A”, for which the following documentation must be attached:

(1) RPA registration card.

(2) Credential of the remote pilot(s) who will operate the registered RPA(s).

(3) Insurance policy required by the Civil Aeronautics Board (JAC) or document signed before a notary evidencing the agreement between the parties (owner, service provider and remote pilot) to assume responsibility for damages that may be caused to third parties due to the flight.

(b) This authorization will remain in force until it is relinquished or suspended or canceled by the DGAC.

The partial or total non-compliance with this rule will be cause for suspension or cancellation of said authorization.


(a) Any person operating an RPA in accordance with this standard must carry:

(1) The RPA registration card.

(2) The RPA remote pilot credential.

(3) The RPA operation authorization granted by the DGAC.

(4) The aforementioned documents are non-transferable.

(b) The remote pilot is in charge of directing the RPA and responsible for safe driving in accordance with the provisions of this standard.

(c) All RPA operations must be carried out in visual meteorological conditions (VMC).

(d) The remote pilot must, before starting a flight, determine if the RPA is in safe conditions to operate.

(e) The RPA must be manually controlled at all stages of flight.

(f) The remote pilot must permanently maintain direct visual contact with the RPA (VLOS) or, in conditions beyond direct visual visibility (BVLOS), for which he must demonstrate that the aircraft has a system that is capable of deliver information to the remote pilot in an accurate way of its geographical position and altitude.

(g) A remote pilot during the operation of an RPA may not:

(1) Putting people’s lives at risk.

(2) Endanger public or private property.

(3) Violate the rights of other people in their privacy and privacy.

(4) Operate in a careless or reckless manner that endangers other aircraft on the ground or in the air.

(5) Operate at a distance of less than two (2) kilometers from the extension of the runway axis, measured from the threshold and at a distance of less than one (1) kilometer parallel to the axis of the runway of an aerodrome.

(6) Operate in prohibited areas and dangerous areas published by the DGAC.

(7) Operate in restricted areas, unless authorized by the DGAC.

(8) Operate without being aware of the valid NOTAMS published by the DGAC.

(9) Operate more than one RPA simultaneously.

(10) Operate at night, without special authorization from the DGAC.

(11) Carry out operations at a distance of no more than 500 meters on a visual slope and at a height of no more than 400 feet (130 m) above the surface on which it operates in VLOS condition or, at a distance of 5 kilometers and at a height not exceeding 1,200 feet (365 m) in BVLOS condition, for which the remote pilot must have a system that provides accurate information on the geographic position and altitude of the aircraft.

(12) Occupy an RPA to launch or unload objects from the air, without special authorization from the DGAC.

(13) Operating under the influence of drugs or alcohol.

(14) Operate in areas where a fire is fought by means of manned aircraft.

(h) The total flight time in an RPA operation may not exceed 80% of the maximum autonomy allowed by the electrical charge of the RPA, and the flight may not last more than 60 minutes.

(i) The transfer of command and control of the RPA to another remote pilot may not be carried out with the aircraft in flight.

(j) It will be the responsibility of the remote pilot, during the takeoff or launch and landing or recovery phase of the RPA, to ensure that, according to its characteristics, no risks are produced in the operation and to guarantee that the flight path in All its phases allow to overcome any obstacle and people who are not involved in the operation, with a vertical margin of 20 meters and a horizontal separation of 30 meters.

(k) It will be the responsibility of the remote pilot to take care of the separation with other RPA(s) operating in the area and to coordinate with each other.

(l) The remote pilot must consider that he must give way to any manned aircraft in the different phases of flight, as well as maintain his own separation with other aircraft.

(m) Notwithstanding the provisions of this rule, any person or entity involved in the RPA operation must comply with all legal, tax, municipal, health, environmental, among others, or insurance requirements required by the respective regulations of the different state agencies.


(a) In accordance with the provisions of Article 82 of the Aeronautical Code, all flight operations and RPAS flights of any takeoff weight over military installations, fleet units and Armed Forces air bases are prohibited, both from the Chilean Army, Navy, and Air Force. In the same way, the prohibition of these aircraft is maintained, for flights and over flights over prison facilities and strategic facilities defined by the State of Chile.

(b) For flights due to special requirements that include what is established in a), the RPAS air operator must have prior authorization from the institution.

and the approval of the aeronautical authority, which will be notified through a NOTAM.

(c) All operations under BVLOS conditions established in this DAN 151, will be limited for the exclusive use in the fulfillment of their functions of the institutions that carry out public service operations in coordination with the Ministry of National Defense and the Ministry of the Interior. and their respective Undersecretaries

(d) Failure to comply with what is established in a), b) and c) above, will give reason for the aeronautical authority to apply what is established in DAR 51, Regulation of aeronautical infraction procedures and additionally, the antecedents are presented to the Public Ministry when the case constitutes a crime.



Every owner of an RPA, who wishes to operate in accordance with this rule, must register it with the DGAC in the special RPA registry before starting operations. If an RPA owner wishes to renounce the registration of his RPA, he must request in writing to the DGAC (Subdept. Airworthiness), the removal of the registration, together with the delivery of the corresponding “Registration Card” that was granted to him.


(a) Application for registration signed before a Notary Public submitted by the owner according to the format in Appendix B, which must include the following technical information of the RPA:

(1) Manufacturer, country.

(2) Brand.

(3) Model.

(4) Serial number.

(5) Type of motorization.

(6) Maximum takeoff weight.

(7) Detail of the incorporated equipment.

(8) Autonomy.

(9) Photo size 10 x 15 centimeters in colors (jpg format).

(b) Demonstration of emergency parachute operation.


Once the RPA has been registered, the DGAC will deliver to the owner a registration card, which will indicate:

(a) Name of owner

(b) RUT

(c) Address

(d) Telephone

(e) Trademark

(f) Model

(g) Maximum takeoff weight

(h) Built-in equipment

(i) Photo of the RPA

(j) RPA registration number granted by the DGAC

(k) Identification of the RPA:

(1) Serial number(s) of the RPA, if you have one or

(2) Registration number delivered by the DGAC.



This chapter prescribes the requirements for obtaining the RPA remote pilot credential.


To qualify for an RPA remote pilot credential, the applicant must:

(a) Have reached eighteen (18) years of age.

(b) Present a sworn statement before a notary public of having received theoretical and practical instruction regarding the RPA model to be flown. (Appendix “C”)

(c) Pass a written exam on DAN 151, DAN 91 “Rules of the Air”, Meteorology and Aerodynamics. The minimum grade to pass will be 75%.


Perform as an RPA remote pilot, only in operating conditions with direct visual visibility (VLOS), in the model(s) registered in his/her credential.


(a) The duration of the RPA remote pilot credential shall be twelve (12) months.

(b) To revalidate the credential, a written exam must be passed on the provisions of DAN 151, DAN 91 “Rules of the Air”, Meteorology and Aerodynamics. The minimum passing grade must be 75%.

Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)

2022 – Airbus extends collaboration with Ecocopter for urban air mobility services in Chile, Ecuador and Peru




Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone on Easter Island, pictured above.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.





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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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