86 Kosovo

Centered on a dark blue field is a gold-colored silhouette of Kosovo surmounted by six white, five-pointed stars arrayed in a slight arc. Each star represents one of the major ethnic groups of Kosovo: Albanians, Serbs, Turks, Gorani, Roma, and Bosniaks.

Flag courtesy of CIA World Factbook


Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

Goddess on the Throne is one of the most significant archaeological artifacts of Kosovo and has been adopted as the symbol of Pristina.

Image courtesy of Wikipedia

Kosovo declared independence from Serbia on February 17, 2008, but has not gained complete international recognition to allow it to become a member of the UN. By some, Kosovo is seen as capable of independence, though it technically still remains part of Serbia, acting as an independent province. However, Kosovo is not listed as an official non-member state of the UN, though it has joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, which are two other international communities focused more on international economy and global trade rather than geopolitical issues.

Last updated on April 18, 2024


According to Britannica, in 1971 amendments to the Yugoslav constitution granted Serbia’s two autonomous provinces, Kosovo and Vojvodina, nearly equal status with the six republics of Yugoslavia. In 1974 a new Yugoslav constitution enshrined the provinces’ equal status and gave them the right to issue their own constitutions. However, following the rise to power of Slobodan Milošević (president of Serbia from 1989), the government in Belgrade revoked the provinces’ autonomy and retook political control. Kosovo thus was administered by Serbia until the conflict of 1998–99, after which Serbian and Yugoslav forces withdrew and the UN oversaw the installment of an interim administration. Under the guidance of the UN mission, Kosovar Albanians established central and municipal government institutions, while the UN worked to resolve Kosovo’s future status. Multilateral talks on the subject led to a plan, developed by UN special envoy Martti Ahtisaari and supported by Kosovar Albanians, whereby Kosovo would eventually gain independence. But because Serbia strongly opposed the idea of Kosovar independence, Russia blocked UN approval of the Ahtisaari Plan in 2007. Further talks failed to produce any agreement, and on Feb. 17, 2008, Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence. That April a Kosovar assembly approved a constitution, which took effect on June 15, 2008. Although the constitution granted local self-government to Kosovo’s Serb communities and offered special protection for Serb cultural and religious sites, many Serbs rejected both the declaration of independence and the new government. Numerous Serbs boycotted subsequent elections, preferring to support the parallel administrative structures organized by Serb groups and backed by Belgrade, structures that the Kosovar government deemed illegal. According to the 2008 constitution, the executive branch of government is led by a president (head of state) and a prime minister (head of government). The president is elected by the Assembly of Kosovo for a five-year term, with the right to be reelected to one additional term. The president appoints the prime minister upon a recommendation by the majority party or coalition in the Assembly. The Assembly is a unicameral legislature composed of 120 deputies directly elected by voters for four-year terms. Of the 120 seats in the Assembly, 100 are distributed on the basis of proportional representation, at least 10 are guaranteed for Kosovar Serbs, and 10 are reserved for members of the Bosniak (Bosnian Muslim), Turkish, Roma, Ashkali, Egyptian, and Gorani communities.

Municipalities are the basic units of local government. Each municipality is administered by a mayor and a municipal assembly, elected every four years by proportional representation. Municipalities have the right to associate with each other and to participate in the selection of local police commanders. Some municipalities with predominantly Serb populations have special rights, such as the operation of a secondary health system, oversight of postsecondary education, and management of cultural and religious sites.

The Supreme Court of Kosovo is the highest judicial authority for all matters except constitutional questions, which are decided by the Constitutional Court. For the Supreme Court and lower courts of appeal, at least 15 percent of the judges must hail from minority communities. An independent judicial council ensures the impartiality of the judicial system. The judicial council also recommends candidates for the judiciary to the president of Kosovo, who makes the appointments.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

Civil Aviation Authority of the Republic of Kosovo (CAAK) was established under Law No. 03/L-051 on Civil Aviation as an independent civil aviation regulatory agency. CAAK is responsible for the regulation of civil aviation safety and the economic regulation of airports and air navigation services in the Republic of Kosovo. Civil Aviation activities in Kosovo air space are carried out in accordance with the provisions of the Law on Civil Aviation, the Convention on International Civil Aviation of 7 December 1944, and the Agreement on the Establishment of a European Common Aviation Area. Kosovo has the appropriate legislative framework for aviation and the oversight of aviation activities. Regulations and requirements are constantly being developed to align Kosovo’s aviation legislation and procedures with international requirements such as the Standards and Recommended Practices of the International Civil Aviation Organization and, particularly with EU aviation acquis as part of our obligations under European Common Aviation Agreement, to which Kosovo is a party. Policies and guidance materials both for the industry and for CAAK staff are developed for enabling ease of understanding and compliance with the regulations and standards. The cornerstone of aviation safety operations is the implementation of Safety Management Systems by all operators from aerodromes to airlines to providers of air traffic services and maintenance organizations. CAAK is committed to achieving the highest possible safety level in Kosovo. CAAK has enforcement mandate for achieving compliance with the regulations and standards.


SkyVectorGoogle MapsADS-B Exchange

ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. Kosovo AIP

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Drone Regulations

Drone Laws


Unmanned aerial vehicle systems (which are commonly referred to as “drones”) are increasingly being used in the Republic of Kosovo. Mainly, drones are remotely piloted aerial vehicles. They are de jure model aircraft. CAA regulation no. 1/2017 requires that these aircraft must be registered in the register of unmanned aerial vehicle systems (SAP) and can only be operated with a special permit issued by the CAA. During drone operation, the owner or operator must have visual contact with the drone at all times.

  • For the general conditions of drone flight, click the following link:
  • For the most frequently asked questions about drone operations, click the following link:
  • For frequently asked questions about registering your drone, click the link below:
  • For your preparation on the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems knowledge test click on Technical Publication TP-28.


Application form for approval and registration of unmanned aerial vehicle system (SAP) – AACK/DSF/GEN-FRM 24

Statement on unmanned aerial vehicle system flights – AACK/DSF/GAT-FRM 25

Application form for operation with an unmanned aerial vehicle system (SAP) – AACK/DSF/GAT-FRM 26

Application forms for theory test for unmanned aerial vehicle system (SAP) – AACK/DSF/GAT-FRM 27

Law enforcement, defense, homeland security agencies, as well as firefighting, search and rescue, and recognized emergency services, which operate Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems (UAVS) should refer to the KFOR Regulations using this Form



A. Military Technical Agreement (MTA), signed 9 June 1999.

B. Regulations for Aircraft Operating as General Air Traffic (GAT) in the Balkans, issued by CAOC TJ, version 3.0, dated 14 November 2014

Article 1 General

Pursuant to documents at references:

a) Kosovo Force Commander (COM KFOR) retains sole authority for the airspace over Kosovo;

b) KFOR HQ J3 Air is responsible for coordinating and de-conflicting the airspace and all air movements within KFOR Area of Operation (AoO), and for these purposes it shall:

  • co-ordinate and de-conflict military and civilian aircraft/UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) operations;
  • disseminate KFOR Flight Safety Message (KFSM), including safety of flight information and range activation times in a timely manner”.
Article 2 Aim

The aim of the present regulation is to provide the conditions and procedures for safe UAS operations within airspace over Kosovo, to be applied by Law Enforcement Agencies competent for security, internal affairs, customs, fire-fighting, search and rescue and related recognized emergency services (from now on “Agency or Agencies”), during flight planning, request approval and execution phases.

Article 3 Applicability

The present Regulation shall be applied to all UAS activities conducted by Agencies specified in previous article 2.

The present Regulation shall not apply to UAS having an operational mass of less than 0,5 kg, which cannot develop kinetic energy above 79 J, their maximum airspeed does not exceed 20 m/s, their maximum range is 15 m and maximum altitude is up to 30 m Above Ground Level (AGL), and provided that they are operated at a minimum radius of one Kilometer clear of Kosovo Administrative Boundary Line (as defined by MTA), two kilometers clear of PRISTINA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (except that under no circumstances will a UAS be operated beneath the landing or take-off flight path), one kilometer clear of NATO CAMP FILM CITY and two kilometers away from any other military base, restricted/prohibited areas or gathering of KFOR troops, unless authorized by KFOR.

Article 4 Definitions and Abbreviations

For the purpose of the present Regulation, the definitions and abbreviations used herein shall have the following meaning:

Aircraft – any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.

Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) – the publication which is issued by the Air Navigation Services Agency of Kosovo on behalf of the Civil Aviation Authority of Kosovo and which contains permanent information which is of importance to aviation.

ATC Permission – a formal written or oral consent from the competent Air Traffic Control Unit;

Beyond Visual Line-of-Sight (BLOS) – operations conducted at a distance that do not allow the pilot to continuously remain in direct visual contact with the UAS, or to comply with the applicable rules of the concerned volume of the airspace;

CAA – the Civil Aviation Authority of Kosovo established pursuant to the Law No. 03/L-051 on “Civil Aviation”;

Controlled Airspace – a delimited airspace in which air traffic control is carried out for IFR and VFR flights in accordance with the provisions for this specific class of airspace;

Flight Operations – air operations of unmanned aircraft system;

Gatherings of people – a place where people gather or congregate (example: concerts, weddings, shows, celebrations, demonstrations, etc.);

KFOR J3AIR – an Officer-in-Charge for military and civilian air operations within airspace over Kosovo, whose scope of duties are set forth in the document at reference B.;

KFOR Flight Safety Message (KFSM) – a specific Military NOTAM (Notice to Airmen) issued by KFOR HQ J3 AIR DESK for the Kosovo AoR. A KFSM contains information concerning establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or hazard the timely acknowledge of which is essential for personnel concerned with flight operations;

Operator – a person, engaged in an UAS operation; Operating Weight – total weight of unmanned aircraft at the moment of take-off;

Pilot-in-Command – the pilot who has been appointed to be in charge of navigating the aircraft and of safety during the flight;

Restricted Operation Zone (ROZ) – restricted airspace created for specific KFOR mission requirement. Non participating airspace user shall remain clear of any active ROZ unless coordinated and approved by KFOR J3 AIR;

Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) – a system which consists of an unmanned aircraft and other components which are required to be able to control the aircraft at a distance, by one or more persons;

UAS Flying Area – an airspace within which the flight of unmanned aircraft is conducted;

Visual Line-of-Sight (VLOS) – means an operation in which the pilot-in-command maintains direct visual contact with the aircraft to manage its flight and meet separation requirements and collision avoidance responsibilities.

Article 5 Categorization of UAS

UAS activities are divided into the following categories:

a) Category 1 – includes UAS whose operating weight is less than 1 kg with a maximum altitude of up to 50 m, maximum airspeed not exceeding 30 m/s and maximum range of up to 100 m;

b) Category 2 – includes UAS whose operating weight is from 1 kg up to 5 kg with a maximum altitude of up to 150 m, maximum airspeed not exceeding 30 m/s and maximum range of up to 2.500 m;

c) Category 3 – includes unmanned aircraft whose operating weight is from 5 kg up to 20 kg, with a maximum altitude of up to 500 m, maximum airspeed not exceeding 55 m/s and maximum range of up to 2.500 m;

d) Category 4 – includes unmanned aircraft whose operating weight is from 20 kg up to 150 kg, without limitation on altitude, airspeed or range. If the operating weight or performance (altitude, airspeed or range) of an unmanned aircraft belongs to two different categories, UAS shall be categorized belonging to the higher category

Article 6 Classification of UAS flying areas

UAS flight areas, depending on construction development, population number and presence of people, are divided into following classes:

a) Class I – is a non-constructed area with no erected constructions of facilities and with no people, apart from pilot and personnel required for flying;

b) Class II – is a developed uninhabited area with auxiliary commercial facilities or constructions which are not intended for habitation, where there are no people, apart from pilot and personnel required for flying;

c) Class III – is an inhabited area with constructions or facilities primarily intended for habitation, business or recreation (apartment buildings, apartment houses, schools, offices, parks, etc.);

d) Class IV – is a densely populated area of narrow urban zones (downtown, gatherings of a large number of people, etc.).

Article 7 KFOR application form

1. The Agency owner of UAS shall submit KFOR application form to KFOR HQ J3 AIR (MBJ3AIRDESK@hq.kfor.nato.int) before the start of air operations with UAS. An application form for approval of flight operations with UAS is enclosed at Annex “A” to this Regulation.

2. The application, as referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, shall be submitted at least 36 hours before the start of operations and shall contain:

a) Agency and operator/s’ name and address;

b) communication asset (mobile phone) to be used during UAS flight activities for urgent communications;

c) type of UAS that shall be used for flight operation;

d) flight date and time;

e) area of operations (UTM coordinates: four corners at a minimal);

f) maximum altitude of operations.

3. Any change to the above mentioned information shall be immediately communicated to KFOR HQ J3 AIR (MBJ3AIRDESK@hq.kfor.nato.int).

Article 8 UAS operation planning phase

1. Before a flight is carried out, the Agency owner of an UAS or its operator, is responsible that the flight shall be planned to determine which type of airspace the flight will be carried out and executed in that class and shall be available to air traffic control unit and/or KFOR HQ JOC for possible necessary communication.

2. KFOR HQ J3 AIR DESK acts as the focal point and shall:

a) de-conflict all military and civil operations requiring the use of the airspace over Kosovo;

b) provide airspace coordination and allocate reservations of airspace (Restricted Operation Zone – ROZ) through Kosovo Flight Safety Messages (KFSM).

3. In the case of complex operations, which cause a significant impact on controlled airspace, KFOR aircraft/UAS activities will have priority over all other air operations except for emergency and medical flights; efforts should be made to avoid the need for such prioritization, if at all possible, in the interest of the airspace normalization.

4. Any urgent requirements must be submitted by the Agency to KFOR HQ JOC by telephone (038 503 603 2310 or 038 503 603 2311) and subsequently by e-mail to JOCLANDDESK@hq.kfor.nato.int, if unexpected critical needs are faced. In this case KFOR HQ JOC DIRECTOR/SHIFT DIRECTOR shall pass the information to KFOR HQ J3 AIR DESK OFFICER or, if no present in the JOC, contact him by phone call (049 750 597). KFOR HQ J3 AIR DESK OFFICER, immediately after obtaining the needed internal authorizations in order to grant the required flight safety of all military and civilian flights shall, in the following order:

  • inform Pristina Control Approach (038 595 8206) and/or Tower (038 595 8207) and KFOR helicopter flights about the urgent UAS activity using the most expeditious means available;
  • notify the requesting Agency of the urgent UAS activity approval and inform the Agency about known aircraft flights in the requested area;
  • inform the interested KFOR Branches about the new aforesaid activity;
  • issue, as soon as possible, the required URGENT KFSM UAS ROZ.

The UAS Pilot/Operator of the requesting Unit shall be responsible for avoiding observed aircraft/UASs flying within the requested UAS operational area, which have not yet been informed about the urgent activity.

Article 9 Airspace separation

1. All UAS ROZ`s must include a 500 m lateral buffer zone, unless stated otherwise in the ROZ and KFSM.

2. A vertical separation of 1.000 ft shall be applied with other non-UAS airspace users.

3. For Flight Safety reasons NO airborne platforms shall enter UAS restricted areas, unless coordination is successfully made with the UAS Operator/pilot reported on the KSFM.

Article 10 General conditions for UAS operations – pre-flight activities

1. The Agency owner of an UAS or its operator has the responsibility to ensure that the flight is performed in accordance with these Regulations.

2. The Agency owner of an UAS or its operator may only operate the UAS if reasonably satisfied that the flight can safely be performed and that other persons and property are not harmed during the flight.

3. The Agency owner of an UAS or its operator shall ensure that the system is maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and that the system’s status is inspected before a flight is carried out.

4. The owner or operator of UAS shall verify the serviceability of the UAS and all functional communication equipment, including cell phone/radio gear, before each flight.

5. UAS can fly only during daylight and at all times has to be within the Visual line-of-sight (VLOS) of the pilot. If flight operations with UAS are to be conducted beyond visual-line-of-sight (BVLOS) or during nightlight periods, the Agency owner of the UAS or its operator shall obtain a special KFOR approval.

6. The operator of UAS shall gather the necessary information for the planned flight and must verify that the meteorological and other conditions in the flight area provide safe flight. In any case, UAS shall not take off if the ceiling above the UAS flying site is less than 300 m (1.000 ft) or the ground visibility is less than 5 Km and the flight shall be conducted clear of clouds.

7. The operator of the UAS shall ensure that all equipment on UAS is properly attached or secured so it will not fall.

Article 11 Execution of operations with UAS

1. All UAS operations shall be conducted within Kosovo AOO. The Agency owner of an UAS or its operator shall only operate the UAS at a minimum radius of one Kilometer clear of Kosovo Administrative Boundary Line (as defined by MTA), two kilometers clear of PRISTINA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT (under no circumstances will a UAS be operated beneath the landing or take-off flight path), one kilometer clear of NATO CAMP FILM CITY and two kilometers away from any other military base, restricted/prohibited areas or gathering of KFOR troops, unless authorized by KFOR.

2. The operator of an UAS shall ensure that the UAS is only flown up to a maximum distance of 500 meters away from the pilot and that he/she shall be able to maintain direct, unaided visual line-of-sight (VLOS) with the UAS sufficient to monitor its flight path in relation to other aircraft, persons, vehicles and structures for the purpose of avoiding collisions.

3. The operator of UAS shall ensure that UAS safely clears all obstacles on take-off and landing. Except when the operational situation requires it, the operator shall ensure a safe distance between UAS and people, gatherings of people, animals, facilities, vehicles, other aircraft, roads, railroads, water routes or high-voltage cables, of at least 150 meters during the flight.

4. The owner or operator of UAS shall ensure that the flight of UAS is at the height of at most 150 meters above ground level, unless approved by KFOR for higher altitude.

5. The operator of an UAS MUST be contactable at all times during the Execution phase and be able to stop the mission immediately when ordered or required to do so. Accepted methods of communication are mobile phone and VHF radio on appropriate frequencies.

6. The operator of UAS shall ensure that the flight of UAS is conducted outside of ATC controlled airspace. In case UAS operations shall be conducted within ATC controlled airspace, the operator MUST follow the appropriate air traffic controller’s clearance/instructions (on frequency or by telephone at 038 595 8206). When the UAS Flying Area falls completely or partially within controlled airspace the UAS operators must contact the corresponding ATC Unit to notify the activation and the deactivation of the Restricted Area.

7. The owner or operator of UAS shall ensure that during the flight no objects are dropped from UAS.

8. UAS operators observing Restricted Zone unauthorized flight crossings will land the UAS as soon as possible and inform the pertinent ATC Unit and KFOR HQ JOC or KFOR HQ J3 AIR DESK, providing the following information / if any:

  • Type of aircraft/helicopter;
  • Color;
  • Position and time;
  • Estimated Altitude; ATC Unit and KFOR J3 AIR DESK will immediately investigate to identify the violation.

9. Under no circumstances shall the operator of an UAS engage in the taking of aerial photographs or the visual observation of KFOR, EULEX, or UNMIK camps/bases, including their personnel, activities, equipment, offices, and buildings.

10. The operator of UAS or the responsible Agency may be subjected to future restrictions or penalties for violation of this section by the competent authorities.

11. For operational or security issues, the involved Agency may be asked to provide a copy of any images taken.

12. The operator of the UAS must ensure that the information regarding the details of the flights is recorded in a notebook or similar document. The information shall consist of name of the pilot-in-command, date, take-off and landing areas of UAS, flight time, total flight time, type of activity and the signature of the owner or operator.

Article 12 Procedure in case of incident/accident

Accidents or incidents which result in the injury of persons or animals or damage to property on the ground or in the air shall be reported to KFOR HQ J3 AIR DESK (by telephone 038 503 603 2710 and by e-mail MBJ3AIRDESK@hq.kfor.nato.int), to the CAAK and to Aeronautical Accident and Incident Investigations Commission (AAIIC).

Article 13 Registration and markings and insurance of UAS

Registration and markings activities and insurance issues shall be carried out by each Agency in accordance with in force national legislation.

Article 14 Knowledge Test

Operators of UAS Category 3 and 4 shall be, medically fit and have passed a knowledge test in accordance with in force national legislation.

Article 15 Review of Decisions

Appeals against decisions taken by KFOR pursuant to the provisions of the present Regulation may be presented to KFOR.

Article 16 Exceptions

Notwithstanding fulfillment of conditions of the present Regulation, KFOR may withdraw an approval granted or reject granting an approval to the Agency owner of an UAS or its operator, or suspend of UAS operations with immediate effect. Actions of KFOR taken pursuant to the provisions of this Article shall be duly justified.

Article 17 Punitive Measures

Any Agency owner of an UAS or its operator found in violation of the provisions of the present regulation, shall be issued a penalty established by KFOR on case by case assessment.

Article 18 Entry into Force

The present Regulation shall enter into force on 1st May 2017.



Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)


Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone to film in Kosovo.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.






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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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