114 United Kingdom

Blue field with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint of Ireland), which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint Andrew (patron saint of Scotland). Properly known as the Union Flag, but commonly called the Union Jack. The design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a number of other flags including other Commonwealth countries and their constituent states or provinces, and British overseas territories.

Flag courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Map courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

Google Earth

Stonehenge as seen from the north barrow, Wiltshire County, England. The stone circle was built about 2500 B.C. by a non-writing culture and is composed of earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones with several hundred burial mounds. Among its many suggested functions are that it may have served as: an astronomical observatory, a religious site, a domain of the dead, or a place of healing. The site has also been connected to Arthurian legend.

Photo courtesy of the CIA World Factbook

UK is a member of ICAO, EUROCONTROL, and JARUS.
Last updated on July 12, 2024

Government

According to Britannica, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy. The country’s head of state is the reigning king or queen, and the head of government is the prime minister, who is the leader of the majority political party in the House of Commons.

The British constitution is uncodified; it is only partly written and is flexible. Its basic sources are parliamentary and European Union legislation, the European Convention on Human Rights, and decisions by courts of law. Matters for which there is no formal law, such as the resignation of office by a government, follow precedents (conventions) that are open to development or modification. Works of authority, such as Albert Venn Dicey’s Lectures Introductory to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (1885), are also considered part of the constitution.

The main elements of the government are the legislature, the executive, and the judiciary. There is some overlap between the branches, as there is no formal separation of powers or system of checks and balances. For example, the lord chancellor traditionally was a member of all three branches, serving as a member of the cabinet (executive branch), as the government’s leader in the House of Lords (legislative branch), and as the head of the country’s judiciary (judicial branch). However, constitutional reforms enacted in 2005 (and entering into force in 2006) stripped the office of most of its legislative and judicial functions, with those powers devolving to the lord speaker and the lord chief justice, respectively. That reform also created the Supreme Court, which in October 2009 replaced the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords as the venue of last resort in the British legal system.

Sovereignty resides in Parliament, which comprises the monarch, the mainly appointive House of Lords, and the elected House of Commons. The sovereignty of Parliament is expressed in its legislative enactments, which are binding on all, though individuals may contest in the courts the legality of any action under a specific statute. In certain circumstances individuals may also seek protection under European law. Until 1999 the House of Lords consisted mainly of hereditary peers (or nobles). Since then it has comprised mainly appointed peers, selected by successive prime ministers to serve for life. As of March 2016, of 815 lords, 701 were life peers, 88 were hereditary peers, and another 26 were archbishops and bishops. Each of the 650 members of the House of Commons (members of Parliament; MPs) represents an individual constituency (district) by virtue of winning a plurality of votes in the constituency.

All political power rests with the prime minister and the cabinet, and the monarch must act on their advice. The prime minister chooses the cabinet from MPs in his political party. Most cabinet ministers are heads of government departments. The prime minister’s authority grew during the 20th century, and, alone or with one or two colleagues, the prime minister increasingly has made decisions previously made by the cabinet as a whole. Prime ministers have nevertheless been overruled by the cabinet on many occasions and must generally have its support to exercise their powers.

Because the party with a majority in the House of Commons supports the cabinet, it exercises the sovereignty of Parliament. The royal right of veto has not been exercised since the early 18th century, and the legislative power of the House of Lords was reduced in 1911 to the right to delay legislation. The cabinet plans and lays before Parliament all important bills. Although the cabinet thus controls the lawmaking machinery, it is also subject to Parliament; it must expound and defend its policy in debate, and its continuation in office depends on the support of the House of Commons.

The executive apparatus, the cabinet secretariat, was developed after World War I and carries out the cabinet’s decisions. It also prepares the cabinet’s agenda, records its conclusions, and communicates them to the government departments that implement them.

Within the United Kingdom, national assemblies in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland took power in 1999 and assumed some powers previously held exclusively by the central Parliament at Westminster, to which they remain subordinate. The central Parliament retains full legislative and executive control over England, which lacks a separate regional assembly.

Scotland’s Parliament has wide powers over such matters as health, education, housing, transport, the environment, and agriculture. It also has the power to increase or decrease the British income tax rate within Scotland by up to three percentage points. The central Parliament retains responsibility for foreign affairs, defense, social security, and overall economic policy. Unlike the members of the House of Commons, members of the Scottish Parliament are chosen under a system of proportional representation. Scotland has a distinct legal system based on Roman law. In 2011 the Scottish National Party formed Scotland’s first majority government, which pledged an independence forum by 2015.

Since 1999 Wales has also had its own assembly, but only in 2011 did that National Assembly gain direct lawmaking power. It broadly administers the same services as the Scottish Parliament. Like Scottish legislators, members of the Welsh assembly are elected by proportional representation.

The Northern Ireland Assembly gained limited legislative and executive power at the end of 1999. Its members, like those of the other regional assemblies, are elected by proportional representation. It has power over matters concerning agriculture, economic development, education, the environment, health, and social services, but the Westminster government retains control over foreign affairs, defense, general economic policy, taxation, policing, and criminal justice. Divisions between unionist (Protestant) and nationalist (Roman Catholic) factions in the Northern Ireland Assembly, however, have threatened its future. If either faction withdraws from the assembly, the region could return to the system of direct rule by the central government that prevailed in Northern Ireland from 1973 to 1999.

Each part of the United Kingdom has a distinct system of local government. (For a full account of local government in each part of the United Kingdom, see the discussions of local government in the articles on England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland.) Local governments have very few legislative powers and must act within the framework of laws passed by the central Parliament (and by the Scottish Parliament in Scotland). Nevertheless, they do have the power to enact regulations and to levy council taxes (property taxes) within limits set by the central government. They are funded by the council taxes that they levy, by business rates (taxes levied on nonresidential properties, such as stores, offices, factories, and warehouses), by fees for services, and by grants from the central government. Local governments in the United Kingdom are responsible for a range of community services, including environmental matters, education, highways and traffic, social services, firefighting, sanitation, planning, housing, parks and recreation, and elections. In Scotland and Wales regional governments handle some of these functions, and local governments handle the remainder. In Northern Ireland the Northern Ireland Assembly is responsible for many of these functions. The responsibilities of local governments in Northern Ireland are limited to environmental matters, sanitation, and recreation.

Parts of the United Kingdom have as many as three levels, or tiers, of local government, each with its own responsibilities, whereas other areas have only a single tier or two tiers. Throughout England, parish and town councils form the lowest tier of local government. (Parishes are civil subdivisions, usually centered on a village or small town, that are distinct from church bodies.) They have the power to assess “precepts” (surcharges) on the local rates and a range of rights and duties, including maintenance of commons, recreational facilities, and environmental quality and participation in the planning process. Community councils perform a similar role in Wales, whereas community councils in Scotland are voluntary and consultative bodies with few statutory powers. This lowest level of local government has no counterpart in Northern Ireland.

The next tier of local government is usually known in England and Northern Ireland as a district, borough, or city. In Northern Ireland this is the only level of local government. In Scotland and Wales this second tier is the only one with broad powers over major local government functions. In Wales these local government areas are known as either counties or county boroughs, while in Scotland they are variously known as council areas or local government authorities or, in some cases, cities. In some areas of England this second tier of local government is the only one with broad statutory and administrative powers. These areas are known in England as unitary authorities (since they form a single tier of local government above the parishes and towns) or metropolitan boroughs (which are functionally equivalent to unitary authorities but form part of a larger metropolitan county). In other areas of England, districts, boroughs, and cities form an intermediate tier of local government between the towns and parishes on the one hand and administrative counties on the other. Administrative counties, which cover much of England, are the highest tier of local government where they exist.

In Greater London, boroughs form the lowest tier of local government and are responsible for most local government functions. However, in 2000 a new Greater London Authority (GLA) was established with very limited revenue-gathering powers but with responsibility for public transport, policing, emergency services, the environment, and planning in Greater London as a whole. The GLA consists of a directly elected mayor (a constitutional innovation for the United Kingdom, which had never previously filled any executive post by direct election) and a 25-member assembly elected by proportional representation.

Whereas the administrative counties of England and the counties and county boroughs of Wales have statutory and administrative powers, there are other areas throughout the United Kingdom that are called counties but lack administrative power. In England, metropolitan counties cover metropolitan areas; they serve as geographic and statistical units, but since 1986 their administrative powers have belonged to their constituent metropolitan boroughs. Moreover, in England there is a unit known variously as a ceremonial county or a geographic county. These counties also form geographic and statistical units. In most cases they comprise an administrative county and one or more unitary authorities. In other cases they comprise one or more unitary authorities without an administrative county. Greater London and each of the metropolitan counties also constitute ceremonial and geographic counties. These areas are known as ceremonial counties because each has a lord lieutenant and a high sheriff who serve as the representatives of the monarch in the county and who represent the county at the ceremonial functions of the monarchy.

Finally, every part of the United Kingdom lies within what is known as a historic county. The historic counties have formed geographic and cultural units since the Middle Ages, and they historically had a variety of administrative powers. The Local Government Act of 1888 regularized the administrative powers of counties and reassigned them to new administrative counties with the same names as the historic counties but with different boundaries in some cases. Successive local government reorganizations in the 1970s and ’90s redrew the boundaries of administrative units in the United Kingdom so that no remaining administrative unit corresponds directly to a historic county, although many administrative and geographic counties and other local government units carry the names of historic counties. Still, even though they lack administrative power, historic counties remain important cultural units. They serve as a focus for local identity, and cultural institutions such as sporting associations are often organized by historic county.

Recruited from successful practicing lawyers, judges in the United Kingdom are appointed and virtually irremovable. The courts alone declare the law, but the courts accept any act of Parliament as part of the law. As courts in the United Kingdom do not possess the power of judicial review, no court can declare a statute invalid.

An accused person is presumed innocent until proved guilty. The courts strictly enforce a law of contempt to prevent newspapers or television from prejudicing the trial of the accused before a jury. Verdicts in criminal cases rest on a majority vote of the jury (in Scotland a simple majority, in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland with no more than two dissenting votes). Capital punishment was abolished in 1965. Almost all defendants in criminal cases in the Crown Courts (in Scotland the High Court of Justiciary), which deal with all serious cases, are granted publicly funded legal aid.

More than 90 percent of criminal cases in England and Wales are tried and determined by about 30,000 justices of the peace, who are unpaid laypersons, or by the more than 60 stipendiary (paid) magistrates, who are trained lawyers. More serious crimes also come initially before a magistrate’s court. The system is similar in Northern Ireland, but in Scotland district and sheriff courts try most criminal cases. The police must bring an arrested person before a magistrate within 36 hours, but the magistrate can authorize further detention without charge for up to 96 hours. Only 1 percent of suspects are held without charge for more than 24 hours, however. The magistrate decides whether the accused should be held on bail or in custody.

The vast majority of civil actions in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland are tried in local county courts, whose jurisdiction is limited by the nature of the action and the amount of money at stake. In Scotland, sheriff courts and the Court of Session try all civil actions.

Appeals in civil and criminal matters move from the High and Crown courts to the Court of Appeal, from which for centuries cases of legal importance could be appealed to the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords, better known as the Law Lords. In October 2009, however, as a result of constitutional reform, the Appellate Committee was abolished and replaced by a newly constituted Supreme Court of the United Kingdom, made up of 12 independently appointed justices. At the same time, the Supreme Court also assumed the devolution jurisdiction previously held by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. In Scotland only civil matters may be appealed to the House of Lords.

Civil / National Aviation Authority (CAA/NAA)

As the UK’s aviation regulator the UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) works so that:

  • the aviation industry meets the highest safety standards,
  • consumers have choice, value for money, are protected and treated fairly when they fly,
  • through efficient use of airspace, the environmental impact of aviation on local communities is effectively managed and CO2 emissions are reduced,
  • the aviation industry manages security risks effectively.

They are a public corporation, established by Parliament in 1972 as an independent specialist aviation regulator. The UK Government requires that their costs are met entirely from charges to those they provide a service to or regulate.

Most aviation regulation and policy is harmonized across the world to ensure consistent levels of safety and consumer protection. Worldwide safety regulations are set by ICAO.

They run the ATOL holiday financial protection scheme.

They also economically regulate some airports and certain aspects of air traffic control.

The consumer panel acts as a ‘critical friend’ providing a consumer perspective on all aspects of their work.

Airspace

SkyVectorGoogle MapsADS-B Exchange

ICAO countries publish an Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP). This document is divided into three parts: General (GEN), En Route (ENR) and Aerodromes (AD). ENR 1.4 details the types of airspace classes they chose to adopt from classes A through G. NATS UK AIP

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Airspace Classification

Drone Regulations

Drone Laws

Register as a drone or model aircraft operator

Take the flyer ID test

Drone and model aircraft code

Labelling your drone or model aircraft

The UK’s drone rules are based on the risk of the flight – where you fly, the proximity to other people, and the size and weight of your drone.

The rules don’t apply if you are flying indoors. Flights within buildings, or within areas where there is no possibility for the drone to escape into the open air (such as a closed netted structure) are not subject to aviation legislation.

The main rules and advice are covered in our Drone and Model Aircraft Code

Key rules include:

  • Never fly more than 120m (400ft) above the surface
  • Always keep your drone or model aircraft in sight
  • Never fly in an airport’s flight restriction zone unless you have permission

Registration and flyer ID

If your drone has a camera (unless it is a toy) or weighs 250g or more then you need to register with the CAA. You need to renew this registration every year. This is a registration of you as the operator rather than the drone itself.

Anyone flying a drone weighing 250g or more needs to pass a test and get a flyer ID from the CAA. This is free and online. Regardless of whether you legally need a flyer ID we strongly recommend that you do the learning and test as it gives you valuable information on flying your drone safely. If you already have a flyer ID that is still valid, you don’t need to re-do the test until it expires, although you are required to keep up to date with the new regulations. You can register, get your flyer ID and find more information

If you’re not able to use the online service, you can call 0330 022 9930, Monday to Friday, 8:30am to 4:30pm.

Privacy

Wherever you fly your drone, consider the privacy of others. Our Drone and Model Aircraft code offers advice.

Drone rules

The done rules are based on risk and divided into three categories: Open, Specific, and Certified.

The Open category is intended for low-risk drone flights, for example because you are flying a lightweight drone or operating in the countryside.

(Members of a recognized UK model flying associations (BMFA, SAA, LMA & FPVUK) will be operating under the terms of a specific authorization and should confirm details with their association.)

The Specific category is for higher risk flights such as flying a heavier drone over an urban area. To be allowed to fly in this category you will need an operating approval.

The Certified category is for large drones which have to meet specific safety certifications along the lines of aircraft.

The UK’s airspace is incredibly busy and split into various areas and types of airspace to accommodate the different flying that takes place. Before you fly its vital that you check the airspace in your location to see if its legal and safe to fly there and if there are any planned restrictions in the area.

Permanent airspace restrictions

A number of airspace restrictions exist within the UK and these apply equally to both unmanned and manned aircraft. These areas are referred to as either: Prohibited Areas, Restricted Areas or Danger Areas.

A map, and downloadable file, of these restrictions can be found on the NATS website.

Most of these areas are permanent with the restrictions applying at all times and they are marked on aviation charts and airspace apps. Other portions of airspace may become temporarily restricted, either as a result of a longer term pre-planned event, or in reaction to a short notice occurrence, such as an emergency incident.

Many people use apps and online resources to check airspace.  The formal details can be found in the UK Aeronautical Information Package (UK AIP) at the NATS Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) website. General airspace rules and procedures can be found at section ENR 1.1, and specific navigation warnings can be found at ENR 5 in the AIP document.

When flying in the Specific category, an operator may be required to notify the relevant air traffic control unit if entering controlled airspace within the terms of their authorization, or if detailed within their operations manual. This is dependent on the type of operation and the mitigations provided within the safety case. See the AMC/GM to UK Regulation (EU) 2019/947, section AMC1 UAS.SPEC.040(1)(b) for further information.

Controlled airspace requirements (airspace classes A,B,C,D,E) do not apply to drones flying in the Open category.

Temporary restrictions

Some restrictions may be established at short notice and can be in any area of airspace, including around airfields, so drone and remotely piloted aircraft pilots must check for any restrictions, every time they fly.

They publicize temporary airspace restrictions using the Skywise system.

These are also formally notified by the use of the aviation notification system known as NOTAMs, and can be found either within the NATS Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) website in Aeronautical Information Circulars or Briefing Sheets and may also be detailed in airspace alerting apps and websites, providing they use the official AIP source.

Some drone flight planning apps display temporary restrictions, but some do not. Before flying, you must ensure that you have checked for both permanent and temporary restrictions.

Flight Restriction Zones around space sites

Airspace access reporting

Model Aircraft Flying – Model aircraft are a type of remotely piloted aircraft. Model aircraft have been flown for many years in the UK. These models are often scaled down versions of manned aircraft. Many hobbyists tend to fly from specific, designated sites and as part of a club environment. However, solo flight from other locations is also possible provided that the models are operated in accordance with the requirements of the law and are flown with respect to the safety of other people and aircraft.

Model aircraft may be flown:

  • Within the Open category
  • Within the Specific category
  • Within the Specific category as member of a CAA recognized model aircraft association (Article 16 Authorization). If you are a member of a recognized model aircraft association, they will provide you with the details of any authorization you are able to make use of and the conditions you must comply with. There are more complex rules for flying model aircraft under an Article 16 Authorization. Association members wishing to make use of such an authorization, should contact their association for further information.

Guidance for model aircraft clubs within the vicinity of aerodromes

A number of model aircraft clubs operate within the vicinity of aerodromes, some within the aerodrome’s flight restriction zone. This means that in order to operate, model aircraft pilots will require permission from the relevant aerodrome. This permission is not necessarily required on a per flight basis, but may be issued on a more general basis by an air traffic service unit or aerodrome operator. This may be agreed by a letter of agreement or otherwise.

We recommend that model aircraft clubs near aerodromes establish a relationship with the aerodrome operator, with a view to facilitating a positive two-way dialogue. Model aircraft associations may be able to provide specific guidance with regard to engaging with aerodrome operators.

Should a model aircraft remote pilot, or club, believe that a request to operate within the airspace associated with an aerodrome, has not been considered appropriately, this may be reported to the CAA.

NO-FLY Zone over Prisons

2023 – New prison ‘no-fly zones’ for drug-delivering drones

New legislation made in October 2023 will make it an automatic offense to fly drones within 400 meters of any closed prison or young offender institution in England and Wales. Drone operators that break the rules could face fines of up to £2,500 while those found smuggling illicit items will face up to 10 years in prison.

Drone sightings at prisons have increased sharply in recent years and current air space restrictions mean police can only act on drone sightings where there is evidence of contraband being illegally smuggled.

By creating a virtual ‘no-fly zone’ around prison airspace, the new restrictions mean police and prison staff will be able to act quickly to identify suspicious drones and take swift action against suspected criminal activity, as well as enhancing security by preventing illegal filming.

Prisons Minister Damian Hinds said:

  • This is the latest step in the war we are winning to stop drugs, weapons and phones getting into our prisons.
  • These virtual ‘no-fly’ zones – along with our new airport-style X-ray scanners – mean we can clamp down better than ever on violence behind bars to keep both prisoners and staff safe from harm.

Between 2019 and 2021, 504 drones were either sighted, intercepted or seized around prisons in England and Wales, and police and prison staff have worked together to help secure more than 70 convictions since June 2016. Those sentenced are serving more than 240 years in prison.

A single attempted drone delivery in May 2022 contained a payload of over £35,000 worth of illicit substances and contraband. This included 399 buprenorphine tablets, around 30 grammes of cannabis and 11 mobile phones.

The announcement on 23 October 2023 follows a £100 million investment to bolster prison security across the estate – including 75 additional x-ray body scanners and airport-style Enhanced Gate Security at 42 high-risk prison sites, implementing routine searching of staff and visitors.

The new restrictions were made into law on Monday 16 October 2023, with the support of Department of Transport and Civil Aviation Authority. It will take effect from 25 January 2024.

The new measures will build on current legislation including the Air Traffic and Unmanned Aircraft Act 2021 (ATUMA), which gives police the power to intercept or seize drones suspected of being used to break the law, as well as any use of drones which break the Prison Act 1952 – such as through smuggling drugs and weapons.

C-UAS

UK Counter-UAS Policy

UK Interception of communications code of practice 2022

 

April 2023 – Developing Operational Requirements- C-UAS DTI – Countering The Threats From Uncrewed Aerial Systems- Developing Operational Requirements for C-UAS Detect, Track and Identify Technology is a document from the National Protective Security Authority, formerly the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI). Formulating operational requirements (OR) for C-UAS technology is the initial step among several intricate tasks crucial for the successful implementation of C-UAS technology. This guidance outlines the necessary steps for sites to implement C-UAS technology. With various types and combinations available for purchase, understanding the selected equipment’s performance, alignment with site requirements, and compliance with the law is crucial.

 

June 2023 – Assessing UAS Threat and Vulnerability – Countering The Threats From Uncrewed Aerial Systems- Assessing The Threat and Vulnerability is a document from the National Protective Security Authority, formerly the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI). This document provides information on how to assess the vulnerability of a site to the threat of Uncrewed Aerial Systems (UAS). Detailed guidance is provided as to the four tasks that should be undertaken to complete the vulnerability assessment.

 

Aug 2023 – Drone Attack Threat Highlighted in UK National Risk Register – The National Risk Register (NRR) is the public version of the National Security Risk Assessment (NSRA), the UK government’s comprehensive evaluation of the nation’s most critical risks.

 

Air Traffic Management and Unmanned Aircraft Act 2021

Air Traffic Management and Unmanned Aircraft Act 2021

 

Advanced Air Mobility (AAM)

UK Future of Flight Action Plan 2030

 

In March 2023, ADS, the trade association for aerospace, defense, security and space, released a call to action, DEVELOPING THE eVTOL INDUSTRY IN THE UK, setting out the five key areas that the UK aerospace industry believes should be the focus of Government and regulator efforts in the coming months. These recommendations, expanded upon in the report, will be an important part of the UK’s roadmap to unlocking the potential benefits of new electric Vertical Take-Off and Landing (eVTOL) vehicles. The five recommendations are:

  1. A well-resourced and funded Civil Aviation Authority (CAA)
  2. A clear set of regulatory and policy requirements
  3. Immediate prioritization of infrastructure
  4. Collaboration to foster public engagement
  5. Safe, shared integration into airspace

 

CAP2505: Emerging Technologies: The effects of eVTOL aircraft noise on humans

CAP2506: Noise measurements from eVTOL aircraft: A review of available data

CAP2538: Considerations for Aerodromes and Vertiports planning to operate Vertical Take-off and Landing Aircraft (VTOL)

CAP2537: UK CAA Certification of eVTOL Aircraft

 

2022 – UK Consortium Completes Urban Air Mobility Concept of Operations for the Civil Aviation Authority

2023 – Ferrovial, Milligan partner to develop vertiports in United Kingdom

2023 – Vertical announces the opening of the Vertical Energy Centre, the UK’s most advanced aerospace battery facility

2023 – Vertical Aerospace reaches certification milestones, receives design organization approval from U.K. CAA

2024 – Vertiport Design Proposal for Existing Aerodrome

The UK Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) has launched a consultation on proposals for existing aerodromes that wish to accommodate VTOL aircraft. They anticipate that the initial eVTOL flights will take place from existing infrastructure, hence this consultation only applies to existing aerodromes and not bespoke vertiports.

 

AAM4Gov

AAM and UAM certified courses and training for UK local government officers, councillors, and other community stakeholders

 

UK CAA eVTOL Safety Leadership Group – formally established in January 2022 – aim is to consider the safety challenges that need to be solved to allow eVTOL aircraft and subsequently drone taxis to come to market.

 

2024 – Skyports and Bicester Motion unveil plans for UK’s first vertiport testbed for air taxi industry

2024 – UK Government Issues Action Plan for eVTOL and UAS Operations

2024 – Unifly’s UTM Platform Advances Urban Air Mobility in Europe

2024 – England’s eVolare orders 4, reserves 12 Lilium Jets

2024 – UK’s 1st permanent vertiport opens in Wales

 

Short Essay Questions

Question 1

You have been hired by a Drone Startup Company. Your boss has immediately assigned this job to you.

They need you to prepare a one-page memo detailing the legalities of using a drone to film Stonehenge, pictured above.

They need you to mention any national laws and local ordinances.

They specifically want to know what airspace you will be operating in and whether or not you need an airspace authorization.

Does it matter whether or not you are a citizen of the country?

Lastly, there is a bonus for you if, as you scroll through this chapter, you find any typos or broken links!

Question 2

Do you need a certificate to fly UAS?

If so, how do you obtain one?

Are there fees associated with this?

If so, how much?

Question 3

May you operate beyond visual line of sight?

If so, what procedures must you follow?

Question 4

Does the country have UAM/AAM laws? If so, describe, citing the exact law.

Question 5

Are you aware of any new laws or policies not mentioned above? If so, describe, citing the exact law or policy.

 

 

 

License

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Drones Across the World Copyright © 2023 by Sarah Nilsson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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